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CATHOLIC 
RADICALISM 

PHRASED ESSAYS 
FOR THE GREEN REVOLUTION 




by 



PETER MAURIN 

With Drawings by 
ED WILL OCX 

CATHOLIC WORKER BOOKS 

115 Molt St. New York 13, N. Y. 



The contents of this book 
are not copyrighted. The text 
may be reproduced by anyone 
in any desired form. May it 
be done for the greater honor 
and glory of God and the 
furtherance of the lay aposto- 
late to which the author's life 
was devoted. 



First Edition 
August 1949 



INTRODUCTION 

After I had written the story of Peter Maurin's death and 
burial for the June issue of the catholic worker and the 65,000 
copies of that issue had been sent out to our readers, I received 
a letter from a Mr. Louis Kozma, down on Avenue D, in New 
York, who wrote of his old friendship with Peter and asked for 
the following facts, which 1 am herewith supplying. 

Date and month Peter died: May 15th, 1949. Specifically, on 
the feast of St. Jean Baptiste de la Salle, founder of the Chris- 
tian Brothers, of which Peter was one for a time. 

How old was he? Seventy-two the month of his death. We 
celebrated his birthdays with little parties, singing folk songs, 
which pleased him very much. Usually he made them an occa- 
sion for a speech, for a "clarification of thought." 

Where was he born? In the little town of Oultet, in the 
Province of Languedoc, France, 200 miles from Barcelona, one 
of a family of 23 children. His own mother died after giving 
birth to five children, and his father married again and there 
were 18 more children. Amongst them there were four teach- 
ers, three carpenters, some farm hands. Some of his sisters 
were nuns and some of his brothers were members of religious 
orders. 

"My mother's name," Peter told me some years before he 
died, "was Marie Pages. She died in 1885. Of her five children, 
only I and Celestin, a brother eighteen months younger, were 
left. My whole name was Aristide Pierre. Pierre was my 
grandfather and my godfather. He died at the age of 94 and 
was never sick. He worked in the fields until he was 85, and 
said he could not any longer because of his eyes. So he stayed 
home and made baskets and recited his rosary. He liked to 
work. He knew it was good for him. 

"The last I heard of my brother, he was the head of a school 
in Paris, St. Clotilde's parish school. He had been a Christian 
brother, but when they were secularized they no longer wore 
the garb but went on teaching just the same. One of my half 
brothers taught for the Christian Brothers' school and he was 
married to a school teacher who taught in a public school. 1 



myself taught school for the Christian Brothers for about five 
years. 

"Celestin was teaching in Pueblo, Mexico, when the first 
World War broke out, and he returned to France, and because 
he had not served his time in the army, he was put in the med- 
ical corps. He was buried alive by one shell bursting near him, 
and unburied by another. Another half brother was lost in the 
war, and there were five brothers in that war and probably 
some in this. 

"My youngest half sister was a weakling but got stronger as 
she got older. She studied in England and she is a nun, I do 
not know what order, and is head of a school in Bolivia." 

One time when Peter was giving us slogans, as we sat around 
the table at the Easton farm, he proposed the slogan, "Eat what 
you raise and raise what you eat," and we asked him what they 
ate in his family when he was a boy. 

"We did not eat the calves, we sold them," he said. "We ate 
salt pork. We raised no hops, so there was no beer. We raised 
no grapes, so no wine. We had very little meat. We had plenty 
of bread; there was a communal oven. We had plenty of butter 
to season things with. We had codfish from Brittany fishermen. 
They went all the way to Newfoundland and Iceland to fish. 
We had vegetable soups and salads and cheese. 

"It was in 1882 when the public school system started; I was 
5 years old. It was compulsory in every village. My mother 
and father could not speak French, only a dialect like Catalan. 
(Joffre was born in French Catalonia and Foch in Basque Cat- 
alonia. Catalonian is spoken in Barcelona.) Our home lan- 
guage was more Latin than French. The name of our town 
was a Latin one, Oultet. 

"The seat of our diocese was twelve miles away, and our 
parish church was two miles away. Oultet had fifteen families, 
and in the parish there were ten villages. There were two 
priests, and they worked very hard. To supplement their liv- 
ing they worked in their gardens. The villagers provided them 
with wood, and they got some little pay from the state, a com- 
pensation which was regulated by the concordat made by Na- 
poleon. There are 89 departments in France, and in my prov- 
ince of Languedoc there were seven or nine departments. 

"My family owned 80 sheep, and there was a herder for all 
the village. There were probably 3,000 sheep in the flock, and 
they grazed on what was still communal land. It was very cojd 
in winter. The fuel we used was branches from trees. We used 
to cut the branches every three years. The leaves were for 



the sheep and the branches for firewood. We cooked at an 
open fireplace. 

"My father is dead, and my stepmother must be 75 now. Her 
name is Rosalie. She was 19 when she married my father. The 
last I heard, my brother was still farming and dealing in cattle. 

"I lived there in the southern part of France, a peasant, on 
the soil, until I was 14, and then I went away to school. When 
I went to the Christian Brothers' school near Paris I studied 
for five years and then I taught for five years. I was a member 
of a study club in Paris then. It was the same time Charles 
Peguy was there, but I did not know him nor was I influenced 
by him. Instead I was interested in a group which published a 
paper which came out twice a week called Le Sillon. It had 
nothing to do with the decentralist, the distributist movement, 
no, but it was interested in ethics. It understood the chaos of 
the time. Marc Sangnier was editor and backer of the paper. 
Later friends got out a weekly paper called The Spirit of 
Democracy. They were looking for an ideology. They were 
preoccupied with the idea of an elite in a democracy. 

"I did not like the idea of revolution. I did not like the French 
revolution, nor the English revolution. I did not wish to work 
to perpetuate the proletariat. I never became a member of 
a union, even though here in America I did all kinds of hard 
labor. I was always interested in the land and man's life on 
the land. That is why I went homesteading in Canada, but 
after two years, after my partner was killed in a hunting acci- 
dent, I went around the country with work gangs and entered 
this country in 1911, where I have been ever since." 

Another question that Peter's friend on the lower East Side 
asked me was, "Was Peter ever married?" No, Peter was a 
single man, an apostle to the world, and all men were his broth- 
ers, and we were his family. 

It took a long time to get even the above facts from him be- 
cause one of the outstanding characteristics of Peter was his 
love of ideas, and his impersonality in expressing them. He 
quoted authorities to bolster his ideas, men of prestige, he used 
to say, recognizing humbly that he was not a man of distinc- 
tion. But he did not use incidents or personalities to illustrate 
his ideas. We tried to do that in the paper, in the catholic 
worker, which he urged me to start in 1933. 

I first met Peter in December, 1932, when George Shuster, 
then editor of Commonweal, now president of Hunter College, 
urged him to get into contact with me because our ideas were 
so similar, both our criticism of the social order and our sense 
of personal responsibility in doing something about it. It was 

iii 



not that "the world was so much with us" as that we felt that' 
God did-not intend things to be as bad as they were. We 
believed that "in the Cross was joy of spirit." We knew that 
due to original sin, "all nature travailleth and groaneth eyen 
until now," but we also believed, as Juliana of Norwich said, 
that "the worst had already happened," i.e., the Fall, and that 
Christ had repaired that "happy fault." We expected the suf- 
fering that goes with love, and we knew that only with such 
suffering are we enabled to "rejoice always." In other words, 
we both accepted the paradox which is Christianity. 

We also believed that "The Catholic Church, that imperish- 
able handiwork of our all-merciful God, has for her immediate 
and natural purpose the saving of souls and securing our happi- 
ness in heaven. Yet in regard to things temporal she is the 
source of benefits as manifold and great as if the chief end of 
her existence were to ensure the prospering of our earthly 
life." (Pope Leo Xlll — Immortale Dei.) 

Peter's program for immediate needs which he outlined for 
me was as follows: 

Alleviation oj the immediate needs of the poor and indoctri- 
nation by example through voluntary poverty and the practice 
of the wor&s of mercy, corporal and spiritual. 

Clarification of thought through the CATHOLIC WORKER, leaf- 
lets, articles, discussions and meetings. 

Houses of Hospitality in every poor parish to practice mutual 
aid, hospitality and charity, houses which would also provide 
workshops where the unemployed could be employed and 
where the unskilled could become skilled. 

Farming communes, or agronomic universities, which would 
be founded on the faith and poverty of the Irish universities 
which housed scholars and students from all over Europe and 
which in turn evangelized the world, and which in turn in our 
day could become Christian communities of families where the 
communal and private aspect of, property could be restored, and 
man would receive according to his needs. 

Peter was influenced in his reading by Kropotkin and Eric 
Gill, A. J. Penty, Harold Robbins, Belloc and Chesterton. He 
introduced us to these writers. He preferred the word anarchist 
to the word-socialist because he believed that nothing was so 
important as man's freedom. 

As Harold Robbins wrote, "Freedom is the primary and su- 
preme reason for the existence of mankind. That He should 
be freely loved and served seems, so far as our thought can 
penetrate, to have been God's chief reason for calling us into 
being. At the cost of this freedom God could have established 

iv 



and maintained a world full of ORDER, but not of justice, for 
free will is of the essence of human justice." 

It followed that Peter was a pacifist and did not believe in 
the use of force. When I spoke to him toward the close of his 
life about compulsory military training and the registration 
that began it, and asked him what he would do, he replied 
slowly, and with thought, "I would resist." 

We have called Peter's book "Catholic Radicalism," and that 
is the title which he himself chose. He would have liked the 
catholic worker to have been named instead the catholic 
radical, insisting as he did on the true meaning of the word, 
which is root, and certainly Peter was getting down to the roots 
of things. 

His teaching was simple, so simple, as one can see from these 
phrased paragraphs, these Easy Essays, as we have come to call 
them, that many disregarded them. It was the sanctity of the 
man that made them dynamic. 

We wish to emphasize here that though he synopsized hun- 
dreds of books for all of us who were his students, and that 
meant thousands of pages of phrased paragraphs, these essays 
were his only original writings, and even during his prime we 
used them in the paper just as he did in speaking, over and 
over again. He believed in repeating, in driving his point home 
by constant repetition, like the dropping of water on the stones 
which were our hearts. 

We have been at work these sixteen years now, and countless 
thousands of the poor have been fed, sheltered and indoctri- 
nated. There are half a dozen farms started and a few score 
groups of families have turned to the land, little oases in the 
desert of industrialism. This is the yeast which is leavening 
the wheat. 

There is heartbreak and failure, and suffering and death, too, 
in the record of our work. We are the dung to fertilize the soil 
so that the seeds of the gospel may grow and bear much fruit. 

There will be much written about Peter in the future. We 
had hoped to have this book published before his death so that 
he could hold his work in his hands before he died. But he did 
not have that little joy. So we offer it to him now, and we beg 
him to bless it and us and continue to help us in the work he 
started. 

DOROTHY DAY. 

New York, 

The Feast of SS. Peter and Paul, 

June 29, 1949. 



FOREWORD 

The essays in this book appeared in the CATHOLIC WORKER 
during the first ten years of its publication, beginning with the 
issue of May, 1933, Vol. 1, No. 1. With a few minor exceptions 
they are arranged here in the chronological order of their orig- 
inal publication in the paper. The text has been divided into 
seven books, the first six of which cover approximately the fol- 
lowing periods: Book 1, May 1933 to April 1934. Book 2, May 
1934 to October 1935. Book 3, November 1935 to November 
1937. Book 4, December 1937 to July-August 1939. Book 5, 
September 1939 to February 1941. Book 6, March 1941 to De- 
cember 1942. The dates of the interviews which comprise 
Book 7 are given in the text. 

While the book divisions are purely arbitrary, the first essay 
of each book is one of special significance. Each one serves as 
a keynote of a particular phase of Peter Maurin's message. In 
order, these keynotes and initial essays are: Sociology ("Blow- 
ing the Dynamite"), Condition of Labor ("Big Shots and Little 
Shots"), Agrarianism ("Back to Christ, Back to the Land"), 
Pacifism ("War and Peace"), Racism ("Let's Keep the Jews for 
Christ's Sake") and Economics ("Pie in the Sky"). 

A mistaken belief that Peter Maurin wrote many essays 
which were never published has been expressed in recent years. 
To correct this impression, it is necessary to state emphatically 
that everything written by Peter which he considered worthy 
of publication appeared in the CATHOLIC WORKER in his lifetime. 
It is true that he filled many notebooks with condensations and 
even complete books of other writers, which he copied in his 
beautiful manuscript style in the distinctive form of his own 
essays, but these were in no sense Peter's compositions; he did 
not even paraphrase such writings, but reproduced them in the 
exact words of their authors. Some of these condensations and 
excerpts were printed in the catholic worker, but they do not 
belong in a volume of his collected essays. The only essays 
composed by Peter which remain unpublished are those which 
he did not reduce to writing, and they were for the most part 
variations of those which have been published, variations at- 

vi 



tributable to particular circumstances attending their oral 
delivery. 

It has been necessary to omit from this collection some essays 
published in the catholic worker which were composed of 
several paragraphs taken from other essays and grouped under 
a new title. One such essay which may be cited as an example 
will be found in the issue of July -August, 1941, Vol. VIII, No. 9, 
on page 1, under the title "Let's Be Charitable for Christ's 
Sake." There are five paragraphs in this essay, each of which 
may be found in one of several other essays. Such repetition 
serves a good purpose in journalistic publication, but it would 
be unjustifiable in a book. There are a number of similar 
examples in the files of the paper, none of which will be found 
in this volume. 

Some paragraphs appear repeatedly in the published essays, 
either unchanged or with slight variations. Repetition of some 
of them is desirable, and in such instances they have been re- 
tained. In other instances the repeated paragraphs have been 
omitted, the omission being indicated by a figure and four 
asterisks (**!**). Reference to the list on page 206 will show 
where the omitted paragraph may be found elsewhere in the 
book. This method of indicating omitted paragraphs was 
adopted for the convenience of those students of Peter's writ- 
ings who have need of a more nearly complete text than is re- 
quired by the general reader. The omitted paragraphs should 
be included whenever essays are copied from this book for 
reprinting. 

A large measure of thanks is due to several persons for their 
unselfish assistance in the work of preparing this book for pub- 
lication: To George Collins, who undertook the arduous task of 
copying the essays from the files of the catholic worker; to 
Ed Willock, who gave us original drawings and a number of 
the cuts which originally appeared in Integrity, and to Charles 
Cain for invaluable assistance in my editorial, indexing and 
proofreading labors. 

DAVID MASON. 



vn 



CONTENTS i 

BOOK 1 

Page 

Introduction i 

Foreword vi 

Blowing the Dynamite 3 

Out of the Temple 4 

Ethics and Economics 4 

The Money-Lenders' Dole 4 

Creating Problems 5 

When Civilization Decays 5 

Church and State 5 

Self-Organization 6 

To the Bishops of the U. S. — A Plea for Houses of 

Hospitality 7 

An Open Letter to Father Lord, M. Ag 9 

On Marxism 11 

Is Inflation Inevitable? 13 

A Second Open Letter to Father Lord, S. J 15 

A Rumpus on the Campus 16 

Coming to Union Square 18 

Scholars and Bourgeois 18 

Building Churches 19 

A Question and an Answer on Catholic Labor Guilds . . 20 

Peter's Reply to Michael Gunn 23 

Purpose of the Catholic Workers' School 25 

The Case for Utopia 26 

The Bishops' Message — Quotations and Comments ... 29 

The Spirit of the Mass — The Spirit for the Masses ... 32 

BOOK 2 

Big Shots and Little Shots 35 

For Catholic Action 3 6 

Is Political Action an Answer? 38 

Communist Action in Schools a Challenge to Catholics . 39 

Social Study Schools Needed 42 

A Third Open Letter to Father Lord, S. J 44 

When Christ Is King 45 

Carl Schmitt the Artist 48 

Fighting Communism 49 

Human Rehabilitation 50 

viii 



Essay on Communism 53 

A Program for Immediate Needs 57 

Five Definitions 58 

A Letter to John Strachey and His Readers 60 

Why Not Be a Beggar? 63 

In the Light of History 64 

Teachers, Traders and Tricksters 67 

The Communist Party Vs. the Catholic Worker .... 69 

Bourgeois Colleges 71 

Social Workers and Workers 74 

BOOK 3 

Back to Christ — Back to the Land! 77 

Institutions Vs. Corporations 80 

A New Social Order 82 

Idle Hands and Idle Lands 84 

Yes! I Am a Radical! 85 

Colonial Expansion 86 

The Communism of Communitarianism 89 

Feeding the Poor 90 

Radicals of the Right 91 

Go-Getters Vs. Go-Givers 92 

Communitarian Personalism 95 

Superfluous Goods 97 

Fourth Open Letter to Father Lord, S. J 98 

The Pluralist State 99 

Back to Newmanism 101 

Outdoor Universities 102 

So-Called Communists — (Written for Bolshevik Socialists) 103 

The Thinking Journalist 105 

Caesarism or Personalism 106 

The Sit-Down Technique 108 

The Law of Holiness Ill 

Utilitarians, Futilitarians, Totalitarians 112 

The Way to Fight Communism 113 

Against Class War 115 

Faith and Reason 116 

Unpopular Front 116 

BOOK 4 

War and Peace 119 

Business Is the Bunk 120 

ix 



Peace Preparedness 122 

The Race Problem 123 

No Party Line 125 

The Curse of Liberalism 126 

Beyond Marxism 127 

Business and Such 128 

From Richelieu to Hitler 129 

Non-Catholic Catholics 131 

Not Liberals but Radicals 132 

Two Letters From Peter 133 

Looking Backward 134 

Firing the Boss 136 

BOOK 5 

Let's Keep the Jews for Christ's Sake 139 

The European Mess 141 

Pax 142 

Personalist Democracy 144 

The Stuff and the Push 145 

Why Pick on the Jews? 146 

Turning to the Church 147 

Judaism and Catholicism 148 

Prostitution 149 

Birth Control 151 

Karl's Marxism Versus My Communism 152 

The Sixth Column 154 

For Protection's Sake 156 

Revolutions 158 

Wreckers of Europe 159 

Educational Secularism 161 

Not Jewish Wealth but Irish Culture 162 

Christianity and Democracy 164 

BOOK 6 

Pie in the Sky 169 

The Canon Law and the Law of the Cannon 171 

He Left So Much 172 

Logical and Practical 172 

Beyond Nationalism 173 

True Stories 174 

Let's Be Fair to the Negroes for Christ's Sake .... 175 
The Money System 176 



For God's Sake 177 

If 178 

The Pope and the World 179 

On Specialization 180 

On Personalism 181 

Five Forms of Capitalism 182 

For a New Order 184 

On American Traits 185 

Industrialism 187 

Catholic Action 188 

The Road to Communism 189 

BOOK 7 
Four Interviews With Peter 

I. On the Land 193 

II. On Land and Children 196 

III. On Folk Schools 198 

IV. On Peasant Farming Methods 200 

Peter Maurin on the Air 

He Answers Questions on a Radio Program .... 203 

Reference List of Omitted Paragraphs 206 

Books to Read 207 

Index 208 



XI 



B00K1 




BLOWING THE DYNAMITE 

Writing about the Catholic Church, a 
radical writer says: "Rome will have to 
do more than to play a waiting game; 
she will have to use some of the 
dynamite inherent in her message." To 
blow the dynamite of a message is the 
only way to make the message dynamic. 
If the Catholic Church is not today 
the dominant social dynamic force, it is 
because Catholic scholars have failed to 
blow the dynamite of the Church. 
Catholic scholars 
have taken the dynamite 
of the Church, have wrapped it up in 
nice phraseology, placed it in an 
hermetic container and sat on the lid. It 
is about time to blow the lid off so 
the Catholic Church may again become 
the dominant social dynamic force. 



OUT OF THE TEMPLE 



Christ drove the money 

changers 
out of the Temple. But today 
nobody dares to drive the 
money lenders out of the 
Temple. And nobody dares 
to drive the money lenders ; 
out of the Temple because the 
money lenders j have taken 
a mortgage on the Temple. 
When church builders build 

churches with money 
borrowed from 

money lenders 



they increase the prestige 

of the money lenders. 

But increasing the prestige 

of the money lenders 

does not increase the prestige 

of the Church. 

Which makes Archbishop 

McNicholas say: "We 
have been guilty of 
encouraging tyranny in 
the financial world until 
it has become a veritable 
octopus strangling the 
life of our people." 



ETHICS AND ECONOMICS 



Lincoln Steffens says: 

"The social problem 

is not a political problem; 

it is an economic problem. 

Kropotkin says: 

"The economic problem 

is not an economic problem; 

it is an ethical problem." 

Thorstein Veblen says: 

"There are no ethics in 

modern society." R. H. 
Tawney says: "There were 
high ethics in society 



when the Canon Law was 
the law of the land." The 
high ethics of the Canon 
Law are embodied in the 

encyclicals 
ofPiusXIandLeoXIII 
on the social problem. To 
apply the ethics of the 
encyclical to the problems 
of today, such is the 
purpose of Catholic 
Action. 



THE MONEY-LENDERS' DOLE 



Uncle Sam does not believe 
in the unemployed dole, 
but Uncle Sam does believe 
in the money-lenders' dole. 
Uncle Sam doles out every 
year 



more than a billion dollars 

to the money lenders. 

And it is the money-lenders' 

dole 
that put Uncle Sam 
into a hole. 



The money lenders are first 

citizens 
on Uncle Sam's payroll. 
There were no money lenders 
on the payroll in Palestine 
and Ireland. There were no 
money lenders on the payroll 



in Palestine and Ireland 
because the Prophets of Israel 
and the Fathers of the Church 
forbid lending money at 

interest. 
But Uncle Sam does not listen 
to the Prophets of Israel and 
the Fathers of the Church. 



CREA TING PROBLEMS 



Business men say 

that because everybody is 

selfish, 
business must therefore be 
based on selfishness. But 
when business is based on 

selfishness everybody is 
busy becoming 

more selfish. 



And when everybody is busy 
becoming more selfish, 

we have classes and clashes. 

Business cannot set its house 
in order 

because business men are 
moved by selfish motives. 

Business men create problems, 

they do not solve them. 



WHEN CIVILIZA TION DEC A YS 



When the bank account 

is the standard of values 

the class on the top 

sets the standard. 

When the class on the top 

cares only for money 

it does not care 

for culture. 

When the class on the top 

does not care 

for culture, 

nobody cares 

for culture. 



And when nobody cares 
for culture civilization 
decays. When class 
distinction is not based 
on the sense of noblesse 

oblige, 
it becomes clothes distinction. 
When class distinction has 
become clothes distinction 
everybody tries to put up a 
front. 



CHUR CH AND ST A TE 



Modern society believes 

in separation 

of Church and State. 

But the Jews 

did not believe in it, 

the Greeks 



did not believe in it, 
the Medievalists did 
not believe in it, the 
Puritans did not 
believe in it. 
Modern society 



has separated 

the Church from the State, 

but it has not separated 

the State from business. 

Modern society 

does not believe 

in a Church's State; 



it believes 

in a business men's State. 

"And it is the first time 

in the history of the world 

that the State is controlled 

by business men," 

says James Truslow Adams. 



SELF- ORGANIZATION 



People go to Washington, 
asking the Federal 

Government to solve 
their economic 

problems, while 
the Federal 

Government was never 
intended to solve men's 
economic 

problems. 
Thomas Jefferson says that 
the less government there is, 
the better it is. If the less 
government 

there is, the 
better it is, 



then the best kind of 

government is self- 
government. If the best kind 
of government is self- 
government, then the best 
kind of 

organization is self- 
organization. When the 
organizers try to organize 
the unorganized, then the 
organizers don't organize 
themselves. And when the 
organizers don't organize 
themselves, nobody 
organizes himself, And when 
nobody organizes 

himself, nothing is 
organized. 




TO THE BISHOPS OF THE U. S. 

A Plea for Houses of Hospitality 

1 [An address by Peter Maurin to the unemployed at a meet- 
ing held in. September, 1933, at Manhattan Lyceum, and 
published in the Catholic Worker (October, 1933) in order that 
it might be sent to all the Bishops and Archbishops meeting 
at the National Conference of Catholic Charities in New York.] 



The Duty of Hospitality 

People who are in need and 
are not afraid to beg give to 
people not in need the 
occasion to do good for 
goodness" sake. Modern 
society calls the 

beggar 
bum and panhandler and 
gives him the bum's rush. But 
the Greeks used to say that 
people in need are the 
ambassadors of 

the gods. 
Although you may be called 
bums and panhandlers you 
are in fact the 

Ambassadors of God. As 
God's Ambassadors you 
should be given food, 

clothing and shelter 
by those who are able to 

give it. 
Mahometan teachers tell us 
that God commands 

hospitality, and 
hospitality is still 

practiced 
in Mahometan countries. But 
the duty of hospitality is 
neither taught nor practiced in 
Christian countries. 

The Municipal Lodgings 

That is why you who are in 

need 



are not invited to spend 

the night 
in the homes of the rich. 
There are guest rooms today 
in the homes of the rich but 
they are not for those 

who need them. And they 
are not for those 

who need them 
because those who need 

them 
are no longer considered as 
the Ambassadors of God. . So 
people no longer consider 
hospitality to the poor as a 
personal duty. And it does 
not disturb 

them a bit 
to send them to the city, 
where they are given the 

hospitality of the "Muni" 
at the expense of the 

taxpayer. But the 
hospitality that the 

"Muni" gives to the down 

and out 
is no hospitality because 
what comes from the 

taxpayer's pocketbook does 
not come from his heart. 

Back to Hospitality 

The Catholic unemployed 
should not be sent to the 

"Muni." The Catholic 
unemployed 



should be given hospitality in 
Catholic Houses of 

Hospitality. 
Catholic Houses of Hospitality 
are known in Europe under 
the name of hospices. There 
have been hospices in 

Europe 
since the time of Constantine. 
Hospices are free guest 

houses; hotels are 
paying guest 

nouses. And paying guest 
houses or 

hotels 
are as plentiful as free 
guest houses or 

hospices are scarce. So 
hospitality, like everything 

else, 
has been commercialized. So 
hospitality, like everything 

else, 
must now be idealized. 

Houses of Hospitality 

We need Houses of Hospitality 

to give to the rich 

the opportunity to serve 

the poor. 
We need Houses of Hospitality 
to bring the Bishops to the 

people 
and the people to the Bishops. 
We need Houses of Hospitality 
to bring back to institutions 
the technique of institutions. 
We need Houses of Hospitality 
to show what idealism looks 

like 
when it is practiced. We need 
Houses of Hospitality to bring 
social justice through 
Catholic Action 



exercised in Catholic insti- 
tutions. 

Hospices 

We read in the "Catholic 

Encyclopedia" that during 
the early ages of 

Christianity the hospice (or 
the House of 

Hospitality) was a shelter 
for the sick, 

the poor, the orphans, the 
old, the 

traveler and the needy of 
every kind] Originally the 
hospices (or 

Houses of Hospitality) 
were under the supervision of: 

the Bishops, 
who designated priests to 
administer the spiritual 
and temporal affairs of 
these charitable insti- 
tutions. 

The fourteenth statute of the 
so-called Council of 

Carthage, held about 436, 
enjoins upon the Bishops to 
have hospices (or Houses 

of Hospitality) in 
connection with their 

churches. 

Parish Houses of Hospitality 

Today we need Houses of 

Hospitality as much as 
they needed 

them then, if not more so. 
We have Parish Houses for 

the priests, Parish Houses 
for educational 

purposes, Parish Houses for 
recreational 

purposes, 



but no Parish Houses of 

Hospitality. 
Bossuet says that the poor 
are the first children of the 

Church, 
so the poor should come first. 
People with homes should 

have a room of hospitality. 
So as to give shelter to the 
needy members of the 
parish The remaining needy 

members of the parish 
should be given shelter in a 

Parish Home. 
Furniture, clothing and food 
should be sent to the needy 

members of the parish 
at the Parish House of 

Hospitality. 
We need Parish Homes 
as well as Parish Domes. 
In the new Cathedral of 

Liverpool 
there will be a Home as 
well as a dome. 



Houses of "Catholic Action" 

Catholic Houses of Hospitality 
should be more than free 

guest houses 
for the Catholic unemployed. 
They could be vocational 

training schools, including 
the training for the 

priesthood, 
as Father Corbett proposes. 
They could be Catholic 

reading rooms, as Father 
McSorley proposes. They 
could be Catholic 

Instruction Schools, as 
Father Cornelius Hayes 

proposes. They could be 
Round-Tab le 

Discussion Groups, as 
Peter Maurin proposes. In a 
word, they could be Catholic 
Action Houses, where 
Catholic Thought is 
combined with Catholic 

Action. 



AN OPEN LETTER TO 
FATHER LORD, M.AG.* 



Dear Father: 

In your instruction about 

writing you told us that the 
best way 

to learn to write is to 
write letters because a letter 
is a message from someone 
to somebody 

about something. So this is 
a message from an agitator 
to another 

agitator about a 
discontented world 

* Master Agitator 



which begins to realize 

that things are not good 

enough 
to be left alone. The Catholic 
Worker thinks that you are a 
wonder. We know what 
good work 

you are doing 
among Catholic college youth. 
But Catholic college youth is 
a small proportion of 

Catholic youth 



and all Catholic youth needs 

you. Not only all Catholic 
youth 

needs you 
but all youth needs you. And 
not only all those who 

are in their first youth 
but all those who are getting 

in their second youth and 
also all those who 'have 

reached the age of maturity 
without having reached the 

state of maturity. That is to 
say, we all need you. We all 
need you because you have 
the knack of getting at the 
core of things and of 
presenting your 

findings in a vivid and 
dynamic form. 

In one of his editorials 

Father Gillis says that this 
age is very much like 

the age of the fall of Rome 
and that we could use another 

St. Augustine. Father 
Gillis adds that we need 
men to stir 

things up 
and that we have too many 
who try to smother them 

down. You certainly 
can stir 

things up 



and you can do that with 
much ease. 

It is said that Abbe 

Chardonnel, who was a 
poet, became a priest so he 
could be more of a poet. You, 
who are a born agitator, have 
become a priest, which 
makes you more of 

an agitator. 
In St. Louis University you 
turn out Masters of Arts, but 
as Diego Rivera says: "All 
art is propaganda." And as 
all propaganda is 

agitation, it 
behooves St. Louis 

University, one of the 
best American 

universities, to turn out 
Masters of 

Agitation. So the 
Catholic Worker 

suggests that you, our 
Master Catholic 

Agitator, 
start in St. Louis University 
a School of Catholic Agitation 
for the popularization of 

Catholic Action. Yours for 
Catholic .Action, For the 
Catholic Worker, 

PETER MAURIN. 



10 



ON MARXISM 



To Be a Marxian 

Before he died, Karl Marx 



told one of his friends, "I 
have lived long enough to 



be able to say that I am not 
a Marxian." To be a Marxian, 
according to 

the logic of Das Kapital, is 
to maintain that the best 

thing to do is to wait 
patiently till 

capitalism has fulfilled 
its historic 

mission. To be a Marxian, 
according to 

the logic of Das Kapital, is 
to step back, take an 

academic view of things and 
watch the self-satisfied 

capitalists 
dig their own graves. To be a 
Marxian, according to 

the logic of Das Kapital, is 
to have faith in the forces of 

materialism — forces so 
powerful, according 

to materialists, that 
they will bring the 

millennium 
whether man wants it or not. 
To be a Marxian, according to 

the logic of Das Kapital, is 
to let economic evolution do 

its work without ever 
attempting to 

give it a push. 

What Karl Marx Realized 

Karl Marx soon realized 
that his own analysis of 
bourgeois society could 
not be the basis 



of a dynamic revolutionary 

movement. 
Karl Marx soon realized that 
a forceful Communist 

Manifesto 
was the necessary foundation 
of a dynamic Communist 

Movement. 
Karl Marx soon realized, As 
Lenin realized, that there is 
no revolution without 
revolutionary action, that 
there is no revolutionary 

action without a 
revolutionary 

movement, that there is no 
revolutionary 

movement without a 
vanguard of 

revolution, and that there is 
no vanguard 

of revolution without a 
theory of revolution. 

The Communist Manifesto 

Having realized that a 

Communist Manifesto was 
the basis of a Communis 

Movement, 
Karl Marx decided to write a 
Communist Manifesto. To 
write the Communist 

Manifesto Karl Marx did 
not use his 

analysis of capitalism. 
He took the definition of 

Communism of Proudhon 
and made it his own. He 
borrowed Utopian 

criticism and Utopian aim 
and decided to advocate 

class-struggle, 



that is to say, materialist aims. 

As some people used to think 

that we need a good honest 
war 

to end all wars, 

Karl Marx used to think 

that we need a gigantic class- 
struggle 

to bring about a classless 
society. 

For Catholic Action 

We Catholics have a better 

criticism 
of bourgeois society than 
Victor Considerant's 

criticism, 
used by Karl Marx. Our 
criticism of bourgeois 

society is the criticism 
of Blessed 

Thomas More. We Catholics 
have a better 

conception of Communism 
than the conception of 

Proudhon. 
Our conception of Communism 
is the conception of St. 

Thomas Aquinas in 
his doctrine of the 

"Common Good." We 
Catholics have better 

means than the means 
proposed by 

Karl Marx. Our means 
to realize the 

"Common Good" are 
embodied in Catholic 

Action. Catholic Action is 
action by 

Catholics 
for Catholics and non- 
Catholics. We don't want to 
take over 

the control of political and 
economic life. 

12 



We want to reconstruct the 

social order 
through Catholic Action 
exercised in Catholic 

institutions. 
The Bishops' Program 
Shortly after the war the 

Bishops of America 
formulated a Program of 

Social Reconstruction 
largely based on co-operation. 
But the Bishops' Program 

failed to materialize for 
lack of co-operators. Catholic 
laymen and women 

were more interested in a 
laissez-faire economy. So 
Catholic laymen and 

women went back to 
Normalcy with 

Harding; they tried to Keep 
Cool with 

Coolidge, and now they try 
to See Rosy 

with Roosevelt. Catholic 
laymen and women 

are more interested in 
political action than they are 
interested in Catholic Action. 
Catholic laymen and women 
are more ready to follow the 
leadership of the 

politicians 
than they are ready to follow 
the leadership of the Bishops. 

Reconstructing the Social 
Order 
The Holy Father and the 

Bishops ask us 
to reconstruct the social order. 
The social order was once 

constructed through 
dynamic Catholic 

Action. 



When the barbarians invaded 
the decaying Roman Empire 
Irish missionaries went all 

over Europe and laid the 
foundations of 

medieval Europe. Through the 
establishment of 

cultural centers, that is to 
say, Round-Table 

Discussions, they brought 
thought to the 

people, 
through free guest houses, 
that is to say, Houses of 

Hospitality, 



they popularized the divine 

virtue of charity. Through 
farming colonies, that is to 
say, Agronomic 

Universities, they 
emphasized voluntary 

poverty. It was on the basis 
of personal 

charity 
and voluntary poverty 
that Irish missionaries 
laid the foundations of 
the social order. 



IS INFLATION INEVITABLE? 



Usurers Not Gentlemen 

The Prophets of Israel 

and the Fathers of the Church 

forbid lending money at 

interest. 

Lending money at interest 

is called usury 

by the Prophets of Israel 

and the Fathers of the Church. 

Usurers were not considered 

to be gentlemen 
when people used to listen to 
the Prophets of Israel and the 
Fathers of the Church. When 
people used to listen to the 
Prophets of Israel and the 
Fathers of the Church they 
could not see anything 

gentle 
in trying to live I on the 
sweat of somebody else's 
brow 

by lending money at interest. 

Wealth-Producing Maniacs 

When John Calvin 
legalized money-lending at 
interest 



he made the bank account 

the standard of values. 

When the bank account 

became the standard of values 

people ceased 

to produce for use 

and began 

to produce for profits. 

When people began 

to produce for profits 

they became 

wealth-producing maniacs. 

When people became 

wealth-producing maniacs 

they produced 

too much wealth. 

When people found out 

that they had produced 

too much wealth 

they went on an orgy 

of wealth destruction 

and destroyed 

ten million lives besides. 

And fifteen years after 

a world-wide orgy 

of wealth and life 

destruction 

millions of people 

13 



find themselves victims 

of a world-wide depression 

brought about 

by a world gone mad 

on mass-production 

and mass-distribution. 

Legalized Usury 

Because John Calvin legalized 
money-lending at interest, the 
State has legalized money- 
lending at interest. Because 
the State has 

legalized 
money-lending at interest, 
home-owners have mortgaged 

their homes. 
Because the State has 

legalized 
money-lending at interest, 
farmers have mortgaged their 

farms. 
Because the State has 

legalized 
money-lending at interest, 
institutions have mortgaged 

their buildings. 
Because the State has 

legalized 
money-lending at interest, 
congregations have 

mortgaged their churches. 
Because the State has 

legalized 
money-lending at interest, 
cities, counties, States and the 
Federal Government have 
mortgaged their budgets'. So 
people find themselves in all 
kinds of financial 

difficulties because 
the State has 

legalized money-lending at 
interest. 



The Fallacy of Saving 

When people save money, 
they invest that money. 
Money invested increases 
production. Increased 
production brings a surplus 
in production. A surplus in 
production brings 
unemployment. 
Unemployment brings a 

slump in business. A 
slump in business brings 
more unemployment More 
unemployment brings a 
depression. A depression 
brings more depression. 
More depression brings red 
agitation. Red agitation 
brings red revolution. 

Avoiding Inflation 

Some say 

that inflation 

is desirable. 

Some say 

that inflation 

is deplorable. 

Some say 

that inflation 

is deplorable but inevitable 

The way 

to avoid inflation 

is to lighten the burden 

of the money borrowers 

without robbing 

the money lenders. 

And the way 

to lighten the burden 

of the money borrowers 

without robbing 

the money lenders 



14 



is to pass two laws, 

one law 

making immediately illegal 

all interest 

on money lent 

and another law 



obliging the money borrowers 
to pay one per cent of their 
debt every year 
during a period of a hundred 
years. 



A SECOND OPEN LETTER 
TO FATHER LORD, S. J. 



Dear Father: 

There is a lot of talk today 

about the social value of 

Fascism. 
But Fascism is only a stopgap 
between capitalism and 

Bolshevism. 
Fascist dictatorship is a half- 
way house between the 
rugged 

individualism of capitalism 
and the rugged collectivism 

of Bolshevism. 
There is no essential 

difference 
between Fascist dictatorship 
and Bolshevik dictatorship. 
The trouble with the world 

today 
is too much dictatorship 
and too little leadership. 

Leadership cannot be found 

among politicians, business- 
men 

and college professors. 

The appointed leaders of 
mankind 

are the Catholic Bishops. 

Catholic Bishops have ceased 
to lead 

because Catholic laymen and 
women 

do not consider the Bishops 
as their leaders 



in political and economic 

matters. 
Catholic laymen and women 
look up to the Bishops in 
spiritual matters and look up 
to politicians and 

business men in 
political and economic 

matters. Catholic laymen 
and women 

commit the great modern 

error of separating the 
spiritual 

from the material. This 
great modern error, known 
under the name of 

secularism, 
is called a "modern plague" 
by Pope Pius XI. You, who 
are a born agitator 

and a theologian, 
should bring a thorough 

understanding between 
Bishops, clergy and 

lay people. 
From that understanding 
would spring a form of 

Catholic Action that would 
be dynamic in 

character. We are 
threatened with 
dynamic Bolshevik action 
because we are sorely lacking 
in dynamic Catholic Action. 
PETER MAUR1N. 



15 



A RUMPUS ON 

Two years ago 

I went to see Professor Moley, 

former head 

of President Roosevelt's Brain 

Trust, 
and said-to him: "I came here 
to find out if I could make an 
impression on the depression 
by starting a rumpus on the 
campus. But I found out that 
agitation is not rampant on 
the campus. Only business is 
rampant 

on the campus, although 
business is the bunk. May be," 
said I, "history cannot be 
made on the campus." 

And turning toward his 
secretary, 

Professor Moley said: 

"That's right, 

we don't make history 

on the campus, 

we only teach it." 

And because history is taught 

but not made 

on the campus of our univer- 
sities, 

the Catholic Worker 

is trying to make history 

on Union Square, 

where people have nothing to 
lose. 

A battle royal is raging 
between East and West, 
between stock speculators and 
land speculators, 

16 



THE CAMPUS 

between money lenders 

and money borrowers. 

To go back to the gold stand- 
ard, 

as the so-called "sound 
money" people propose, 

is to favor the money lenders 

at the expense of the money 
borrowers. 

To increase the amount of 
currency, 

as the mild inflationists pro- 
pose, 

is to favor the money borrow- 
ers 

at the expense of the money 
lenders. 

To devise schemes 

so as to bring about a rise in 
prices 

is to favor both money lend- 
ers 

and money borrowers 

at the expense of the consum- 
ing public. 

We made the mistake 

of running business on credit 

and credit has run into debts 

and debts are leading us 

toward bankruptcy. 

The Jews had a way 

of wiping off the slate. 

Every fifty years, 

the year of the Jewish 

Jubilee, 
all debts were liquidated. 
But nobody, 
not even the Jews, 
proposes this old-time solu- 
tion. 



John Maynard Keynes, 

the well-known English 
economist, 

says 

that we ought to ask our- 
selves 

if the medieval economists 

were not sound 

in condemning money-lending 

at interest. 

In his book 

on "Religion and the Rise of 

Capitalism," R. H. Tawney, 
another English economist, 
points out 

that at the base of our ac- 
quisitive society we find 
legalized usury, or lending 
money at interest. Because 
the State has legalized 
money-lending at interest, in 
spite of the teachings of the 
Prophets of Israel and the 
Fathers of the 

Church, home owners have 
mortgaged 

their homes, farm owners 
have mortgaged 

their farms, institutions 
have mortgaged 

their buildings, 
governments have mortgaged 
their budgets. So we are 
where we are because the 
State has legalized 
money-lending at interest in 
spite of the teachings of the 
Prophets of Israel and the 
Fathers of the Church. 



To go back to the teachings 
of the Prophets of Israel and 
the Fathers of the 

Church, 
as I propose in my Easy Es- 
says in the current number 
of the 

CATHOLIC WORKER, would 

not do any injustice to the 
money lenders or the money 
borrowers or the consuming 
public. Money lenders 
would get 

their money back, money 
borrowers would find 

their burdens lightened, and 
the consuming public would 
not have to pay the bill. 

We would go 'back to the 

point from which we 
should never 
have gone. 
We would go back to the time 
when no one was called a 

gentleman 
who indulged in money-lend- 
ing at interest. 
We would go back to the time 
when people could not see 

anything gentle in trying 
to live on the sweat of 
somebody else's brow by 
lending money at interest. 
Many people say that we 
cannot go back, but I say 
neither can we go ahead, for 
we are parked in a blind 

alley. And when people are 
parked 

in a blind alley the only 
thing to do is to go 

back. For when people lend 
money 
at interest 

1 
7 



that money is invested. 
Money invested increases 
production. Increased 
production brings a surplus 
in production. 
A surplus in production 
brings unemployment. 
Unemployment brings a 
slump in business 



A slump in business 
brings more unemployment. 
More unemployment 
brings a depression. 
A depression 
brings more depression, 
More depression 
brings red agitation. 
Red agitation 
brings red revolution. 



COMING TO UNION SQUARE 



Two years ago, I went to see 
college professors 

and asked them to give me 

the formulation of those uni- 
versal concepts 

embodied in the universal 
message 

of universal universities 

that will enable the common 
man 

to create a universal economy. 

But college professors were 
too busy teaching subjects 

to be interested in mastering 
situations. 

College professors 



were too interested 

in academic matters 

to be interested 

in dynamic matters. 

But now college professors 
realize 

that they must be men of ac- 
tion 

as well as men of thought — 

that they must be dynamic 

as well as academic, 

and that Union Square 

can teach something to col- 
lege professors 

as well as learning from col- 
lege professors. 



SCHOLARS AND 

The scholar has told the bour- 
geois 

that a worker is a man for all 
that. 

But the bourgeois has told the 
scholar 

that a worker is a commodity 
for all that. 

Because the scholar has vi- 
sion, 

the bourgeois calls him a 
visionary. 

So the bourgeois laughs at the 
scholar's vision 

and the worker is left with- 
out vision. 

18 



BOURGEOIS 

And the worker left by the 

scholar without vision talks 
about liquidating both the 
bourgeois and the 

scholar. The scholars must 
tell the 

workers what is wrong with 
the things as they are. The 
scholars must tell the 

workers 
how a path can be made from 
the things as they are to the 
things as they should 

be 



The scholars must collaborate 
with the workers 

in making a path 

from the things as they are 
;to the things 



as they should be. 

The scholars must become 

workers so the workers 
may be 

scholars. 



BUILDING CHURCHES 



Henry Adams tells us in his 

autobiography 
that he could not get an edu- 
cation in America, because 
education implies 

unity of thought and there 
is no unity of 

thought in America. So he 
went to England and found 
that England was too much 
like America. So he went to 
France and found that France 
was too much like England 

and America. But in 
France he found the 

Cathedral of Chartres and 
from the Cathedral of 

Chartres he learned that 
there was unity of 

thought in thirteenth- 
century France. 

People who built the Cathe- 
dral of Chartres 

knew how to combine 

cult, that is to say liturgy, 

with culture, that is to say 
philosophy, 

and cultivation, that is to say 
agriculture. 

The Cathedral of Chartres is 
a real work of art 

because it is the real expres- 
sion 

of the spirit of a united 
people. 

Churches that are built today 



do not express the spirit of the 
people. 

"When a church is built," 
a Catholic editor said to me, 
"the only thing that has news 

value is: 
How much did it cost?" The 
Cathedral of Chartres 

was not built to increase 
the value of real 

estate. The Cathedral of 
Chartres 

was not built with money 
borrowed from 

money lenders. The 
Cathedral of Chartres 

was not built by workers 
working for 

wages. 

Maurice Barres used to worry 
about the preservation of 

French Cathedrals, but 
Charles Peguy thought that 
the faith that builds 

Cathedrals 
is after all the thing that mat- 
ters. Moscow had a 
thousand 

churches 
and people lost the faith. 
Churches ought to be built 
with donated money, donated 
material, donated labor. 

The motto of St. Benedict was 
Lahore et Orare, Labor and 
Pray. 



19 



Labor and prayer ought to be 

combined; 
labor ought to be a prayer. 
The liturgy of the Church is 
the prayer of the Church. 
People ought to pray with the 

Church 
and to work with the Church. 
The religious life of the 

people and the economic 
life of the 

people ought 
to be one. 



I heard that in Germany 

a group of Benedictines 

is trying to combine liturgy 

with sociology. We don't 
need to wait for 
Germany to point the way,' 
Architects, artists and ar- 
tisans 

ought to exchange ideas on 
Catholic liturgy and Catholic 
sociology. 



A QUESTION AND AN ANSWER 
ON CATHOLIC LABOR GUILDS 

[A reader in Bellingham, Wash., wrote to Peter Maur in urging 
the organization of Catholic Labor Guilds throughout the 
country. Members would be assessed a dollar a year, and the 
money so raised would be used to start Houses of Hospitality. 
Peter's reply follows. (February 1934.) ] 



Most organizations exist, 

not for the benefit of the or- 
ganized, 

but for the benefit of the or- 
ganizers. 

When the organizers try to 
organize the unorganized 

they do not organize them- 
selves. 

If everybody organized him- 
self, 

everybody would be or- 
ganized. 

There is no better way to be 

than to be 

what we want the other fel- 
low to be. 

The money that comes from 
assessments 

is not worth getting. 

The money that is worth get- 
ting 

20 



is the money that is given for 

charity's sake. 
Parish Houses of Hospitality 
must be built on Christian; 

charity. 

But Parish Houses of Hos- 
pitality 
are only half-way houses. 
Parish Subsistence Camps are 
the most efficient way to 
make an impression on the 
depression. The basis for a 
Christian 

economy is genuine charity 
and volun- 
tary poverty. 
To give money to the poor 
is to increase the buying 
power of the poor. 

Money is by definition a 
means of exchange. 



and not a means to make 
money. When money is used 

as a " 
means of exchange, it helps 

to consume the goods 

that have been produced. 

When money is used as an in- 
vestment, 

it does not help to consume the 

goods that have been 
produced, it helps to 

produce more 
goods, 

to bring over-production and 

therefore increase un- 
employment. So much 

money has been put 
into business that it has put 

business out of 
business. 

Money given to the poor is 
functional money, 

money that fulfills its func- 
tion. 

Money used as an investment 

is prostituted money, 

money that does not fulfill its 
function. 

Poverty and charity are no 
longer looked up to, 

they are looked down upon. 

The poor have ceased to ac- 
cept poverty 

and the rich have ceased to 
practice charity. 

When the poor are satisfied to 
be poor, 

the rich become charitable to- 
ward the poor. 

Because Christianity presents 

poverty as an ideal 
Bolshevik Communists try to 

make us believe 



that religion is the opium of 

the people. Karl Marx 
says that the 

worker is exploited at the 
point of production. But the 
worker would not be 

exploited 
at the point of production if 
the worker did not sell his 

labor to the exploiter of his 
labor. 

When the worker sells his la- 
bor 

to a capitalist or accumulator 
of labor 

he allows the capitalist or ac- 
cumulator of labor 

to accumulate his labor. 

And when the capitalist or ac- 
cumulator of labor 

has accumulated so much of 
the worker's labor 

that he no longer finds it 
profitable 

to buy the worker's labor 

then the worker can no longer 
sell his labor 

to the capitalist or accumula- 
tor of labor. 

And when the worker can no 
longer sell his labor 

to the capitalist or accumula- 
tor of labor 

he can no longer buy the 
products of his labor. 

And that is what the worker 
gets for selling his labor 

to the capitalist or accumula- 
tor of labor. 

He just gets left 

and he gets what is coming to 
him. 

Labor is not a commodity 

to be bought and sold — 



21 



Labor is a means of self- 
expression, 

the worker's gift to the com- 
mon good. 

There is so much depression 
because there is so little ex- 
pression. 

I am fostering Parish Subsis- 
tence Camps 
or Agronomic Universities as 
a means to bring about a 
state of society where 
scholars are workers and 
where workers are scholars. 
In a Parish Subsistence Camp 
or Agronomic University the 
worker does not work for 

wages, 
he leaves that to the Univer- 
sity. 
In a Parish Subsistence Camp 
or Agronomic University the 
worker does not look for 
a bank account, he leaves 
that to the University. 
In a Parish Subsistence Camp 
or Agronomic University the 
worker does not look for 
an insurance policy, he 
leaves that to the University. 



In a Parish Subsistence Camp 
or Agronomic University the 
worker does not look for 
an old-age pension, he leaves 
that to the University. 
In a Parish Subsistence Camp 
or Agronomic University the 
worker does not look for a 

rainy day, 
he leaves that to the Univer- 
sity. Modern industry has no 
work 

for everybody but work 
can be found for 

everybody 
in Parish Subsistence Camps 
or Agronomic Universities. 

1 may later on publish a mag- 
azine entitled The Agrono- 
mist 

for the fostering of the idea 

of Parish Subsistence Camps 

or Agronomic Universities. 

Edward Koch, of German- 
town, Illinois, 

publishes a magazine entitled 
The Guildsman; 

you ought to get in touch with 
him. 

Your co-worker in Christ's 
Kingdom, 

PETER MAURIN. 



22 



PETER'S REPLY TO MICHAEL GUNN 

[Taking exception to Peter's ansloer to the Bellingham reader, 
Michael Gunn, organizer of the Catholic Labor Guild in Brook- 
lyn, wrote a critical letter which drew the following reply. 
(March, 1934.)] 



Dear Mike: 

In my answer to a reader 
from Bellingham, Washington, 

I said that most organiza- 
tions exist, 

not for the benefit of the or- 
ganized 

but for the benefit of the or- 
ganizers. 

I added that when the or- 
ganizers 

try to organize the unorgan- 
ized 

they do not organize them- 
selves. 

When I wrote that 

I did not have in mind 

the Catholic Labor Guild in 
Brooklyn. 

I had in mind 

some selfish exploiters 

of the exploitation of the ex- 
ploited 

who like to be called labor 
leaders. 

I had in mind 

some exalted rulers of secret 
societies 

who, while they call them- 
selves Masons, 

have not, yet learned 

to create order out of chaos. 

I had in mind 

some dignified regulators 

of societies which have some 
secrets 

without being called secret 
societies. 



While I don't like some of 
your ideas, 

I like you personally. 

I think that you are much 
better 

than some of your ideas. 

1 think that you are inclined 

to lead a life of sacrifice. 

During the World War you 
placed your life 

at the service of the British 
Empire. 

After the war, you placed 
your life 

at the service of the Irish Re- 
public. 

And now you have placed 
your life 

at the service of the Church. 

You and your fellow workers 

of the Catholic Labor Guild 

are trying to combine 

prayer, action and sacrifice, 

as the Holy Father suggests. 

You and your fellow workers 

want to be go-givers, 

you don't want to be go-get- 
ters. 

Since you and your fellow 
workers 

want to be go-givers, 

you ought to give 

to those who are in need of 
giving. 

To give to people who have 
money to lend 

is to give to people who are 
not in need. 

23 



People who have money 
should do good with their 

money, 
either give it away, as our 
Saviour advises, or lend it 
without interest. To pay 
interest on money 

loaned 
is to place an enterprise under 
a too heavy burden. Everyone 
must live on the 

sweat of his brow and not 
on money loaned. Nobody 
could lend money at 

interest if nobody 
would borrow 

money at interest. People 
who live on money 

loaned at interest reap some 
of the profits of 

property without the 
responsibility of 

property. 

To pay double wages to 

managers 
is to make the workers 
envious of the managers. 
Managers should receive what 

they need 
and no more than they need. 
Knowledge obliges 

as well as "noblesse oblige. " 
We cannot have a Catholic 

democracy 
without a Catholic aristocracy. 
Paying double wages to 

managers is not the 
way to make 

aristocrats 
out of efficient managers. 
"The most important of all arc 

Workmen's Associations 
and it is greatly to be desired 



that they should multiply and 
become more effective,"* says 
Pope Leo XIII. To borrow 
money at interest and to pay 
double wages to 

managers 
is not absolutely necessary to 
the good functioning of 
Workmen's Associations. 

You say that the Catholic 
Labor Guild 

does not lend money at 
interest. 

I hope that it will see the way 

not to borrow money at in- 
terest. 
[ You say that the Catholic 
Labor Guild 

stands for profit-sharing. 

I hope that your self-sacrific- 
ing example 

will lead the members of the 
Guild 

to stand for loss-sharing. 

When the members of the 

Guild 
decide to allow the Guild to 
accumulate the profits they 
will not need to worry about 
their economic security. Let 
the members of the Gui'd 
give all they can to the Guild; 
the Guild will not leave them 

in want. 
Let the Labor Guild help all 
those that it can help and 
the Farming Communes 

will help all those that 
the Guild 

cannot help. 

Yours for Catholic Action, 
PETER MAURIN. 



24 



PURPOSE OF THE CATHOLIC 
WORKERS' SCHOOL 

from things as they are 
to things as they should be. 



** i ** 



Program 

The purpose of the Catholic 
Workers' School 

is to bring Catholic thought 

to Catholic workers 

so as to prepare them 

for Catholic Action. 

Besides presenting Catholic 
thought 

to Catholic workers 

the Catholic Workers' School 

presents a program of Catho- 
lic Action 

based on Catholic thought. 

The program of the Catholic 
Workers' School 

is a three-point program: 

1. Round-table Discussions 

2. Houses of Hospitality 

3. Farming Communes. 

Bound-Table Discussions 

We need Round-Table Dis- 
cussions 

to keep trained minds from 
being academic. 

We need Round-Table Dis- 
cussions 

to keep untrained minds from 
being superficial. 

We need Round-Table Dis- 
cussions 

to learn from scholars 

how things would be, 

if they were as they should be. 

We need Round-Table Dis- 
cussions 

to learn from scholars 

how a path can be made 



Communes 



We need Communes to 
help the unemployed to 
help themselves. We need 
Communes to make 
scholars out of 

workers 
and workers out of scholars. 
We need Communes to 
substitute a technique of 

ideals 
for our technique of deals. We 
need Communes to create a 
new society within the shell 
of the old with the 
philosophy of the 

new, 
which is not a new philosophy 
but a very old philosophy, a 
philosophy so old that it 
looks like new. Catholic 
Social Philosophy The 
Catholic social philosophy is 
the philosophy of the 
Common Good of St. Thomas 
Aquinas. Three books where 
this philosophy is expressed 
are: "The Thomistic Doctrine 
of 

the Common Good," by 
Seraphine Michel; "The 
Social Principles of the 

Gospel," 
by Alphonse Lugan; 
"Progress and Religion," 
by Christopher Dawson. 



4** — See Reference List, page 206. 



25 



THE CASE FOR UTOPIA 



Better and Better Off 

The world would be better off 
if people tried to become 

better. And people would 
become 

better if they stopped 
trying to 

become better off. For 
when everybody tries to 

become better off, nobody is 
better off. But when 
everybody tries to 

become better, 
everybody is better off. 
Everybody would be rich 
if nobody tried to become 

richer. 
And nobody would be poor if 
everybody tried to be the 

poorest. And everybody 
would be 

what he ought to be if 
everybody tried to be what he 
wants the other fellow to be. 

Christianity, Capitalism, 

Communism 

Christianity has nothing to do 

with either modern capitalism 

or modern Communism, 

for Christianity has 

a capitalism of its own 

and a communism of its own. 

Modern capitalism 

is based on property without 

responsibility, while 
Christian capitalism is based 
on property with 

responsibility. Modern 
Communism is based on 
poverty through 

force 



while Christian communism 
is based on poverty through 

choice. 
For a Christian, voluntary 
poverty is the ideal as 
exemplified by St. Francis 

of Assisi, 
while private property is not 
an absolute right, but a 

gift which as such can 
not be 

wasted, 
but must be administered 
for 'the benefit of God's chil- 
dren. 

Christ's Message 

"No man can serve two mas- 
ters, 

God and Mammon." 

"Be perfect 

as your Heavenly Father is 
perfect." 

"If you want to be perfect, 

sell all you have, 

give it to the poor, 

take up your cross 

and follow me." 

— New Testament. 

"These are hard words, 

but the hard words of a book 

were the only reason 

why the book was written." 

— Robert Louis Stevenson. 

What St. Francis Desired 

According to Johannes Jor- 
genson, a Danish convert 

living in 
Assisi, 

St. Francis desired that 

men should give up 

superfluous possessions, 



26 



St. Francis desired 

that men should work with 

their hands. St. Francis 
desired that men should 
offer- their 

services as 
a gift. 

St. Francis desired that men 
should ask other 

people for help when work 
failed them. St. Francis 
desired that men should live 
as free as birds. St. Francis 
desired that men should go 
through 

life giving thanks to God 
for His 

gifts. 

The Third Order 

"We are perfectly certain 
that the Third Order of St. 

Francis 
is the most powerful antidote 
against the evils that harass 

the present age." 

—Leo XIII. 

"Oh, how many benefits 
would not the Third Order of 

St. Francis 
have conferred on the Church 
if it had been everywhere or- 
ganized 
in accordance with the wishes 

of Leo XIII." 

— Pitts X. 

"We believe that the spirit of 
the Third Order, 

thoroughly redolent of Gos- 
pel wisdom, 

will do very much 

to reform public and private 
morals." 

— Benedict XV. 



"The general restoration of 

peace and morals was 
advanced very much by the 
Third Order of St. 

Francis, which was a 
religious order 

indeed, yet something 
unexampled up 

to that time." 

— PiusJH 

Three Ways to Make a Living 

Mirabeau says "There are 
three ways to make a living: 
Stealing, begging and work- 
ing." Stealing is against the 
law of 

God 
and against the law of men. 
Begging is against the law of 

men but not against the 
law of 

God. Working is neither 
against the 

law of God 
nor against the law of men. 
But they say 

that there is no work to do. 
There is plenty of work to do, 
but no wages. But people do 
not need to 

work for wages, they can 
offer their services 

as a gift. 

Capital and Labor 

"Capital," says Karl Marx, 
"is accumulated labor, 

not for the benefit of the la- 
borers, 

but for the benefit of the ac- 
cumulators." 

And capitalists succeed in ac- 
cumulating labor, 

by treating labor, not as a gift, 

27 



but as a commodity, buying 
it as any other commodity 
at the lowest possible price. 
And organized labor plays 

into the hands 
of the capitalists, or accumu- 
lators of labor, by treating its 
own labor not as a gift, but 
as a commodity, 
selling it as any other com- 
modity 
at the highest possible price. 
And the class struggle is a 

struggle 
between the buyers of labor 
at the lowest possible price 
and the sellers of labor at 
the highest possible price. 
But the buyers of labor at 
the lowest possible price and 
the sellers of labor at the 
highest possible price are 
nothing but commercializers 
of labor. 

Selling Their Labor 
When the workers 



sell their labor 

to the capitalists 

or accumulators of labor 

they allow the capitalists 

or accumulators of labor 

to accumulate their labor. 

And when the capitalists 

or accumulators of labor 

have accumulated so much 

of the worker's labor 

that they do no longer 

find it profitable 

to buy the workers' labor 

then the workers 

can no longer sell their labor 

to the capitalists 

or accumulators of labor 

And when the workers 

can no longer 

sell their labor 

to the capitalists 

or accumulators of labor 

they can no longer buy 

the products of their labor. 

And that is what the workers 

get 
for selling their labor. 
** 9 ** 




28 



THE BISHOPS' MESSAGE 
Quotations and Comments 

[These excerpts from, the Bishops' Message of 1934, with 
Peter Maur in' s comments, were published in the issue of May, 
1934. The quotations are printed here in Roman type and 
Peter's comments in italics.] 



In tracing the remote causes 
of the present misery of 

mankind 
we must listen to him who 
as a loving father views 
from an eminence all the 
nations of the world. 
Quoting St. Paul, our Holy 

Father says: "The desire 
for money is the root of all 
evil." From greed arises 
mutual 

distrust 
that casts a blight 
on all human beings. 

From greed arises envy 

which makes a man 

consider the advantages of 
another 

as losses to himself. 

From greed arises 

narrow individualism 

which orders and subordi- 
nates everything 

to its own advantage. 

People looking 

for a rainy day 

have put so much money 

into business 

that they have brought about 

an increase 

in producing power 

and a decrease 

in purchasing power. 



So there is a rub 
between the rich 
who like to get 
richer and the 
poor who don't 
like to get 
poorer. 

In common with other nations 
we have brought about our 

present unhappy conditions 
by divorcing education, 

industry, politics, business 

and economics from 
morality and religion and by 
ignoring for long 

decades 
the innate dignity of man 
and trampling on his human 

rights. 

We have taken religion out of 
everything and have put 
commercialism into 
everything. 

That we are an industrial 

nation 
is our public boast. 
Industry is considered to 
be 

of more importance than 
the moral welfare of 

man. 
The lord of all is Industry. 
"Save Industry!" is the cry. 
"Put business on its feet 
and all will be well as it 
was in the past." 

29 



We are beginning to learn 

that to put big business 

on its feet 

does not necessarily put 

the forgotten man on his 

feet. 

The philosophy which has 
ruled governments, groups 
and individuals for the past 

three hundred 
years 

has not taken as its guide the 

moral law, has not 

considered the rights 
of men. 

Money, not men, has been 

the supreme 

consideration and the 

justifying end. 

When people care for 
money they do not 
care for culture. And 
when people do not 
care for culture they 
return to barbarism. 

That philosophy permits 

individuals to accumulate as 
much wealth 

as they can 
according to unfair methods 
of modern business and to 
use such accumulated 

wealth 
as they see fit. 

This extreme of individualism 
has led to the extreme of 

Communism. We rightly 
fear its spread 

in our country and see an 
especial menace 

30 



in its insidious presentation 
of fundamental troubles for 
its own destructive ends. 

When modern society 

made the bank account 

the standard of values 

people ceased 

to produce for use 

and began 

to produce for profit. 

Rugged individualism 

leads to 

rugged nationalism, 

which leads to 

rugged collectivism. 

The brotherhood of man is 
loudly proclaimed. Energetic 
protest is made against 
injustice done to the working 
class. The abuses of the 
capitalist 

system 
are vigorously condemned. 
It is insisted that man shall 
not exploit his 

fellow man 
and that all shall be dedicated 
to a life of service. 

In a capitalist society 
where man is 
inhuman to man 
people cannot keep 
from dreaming about 
a society where man 
would be human to 
man. 

A program of social reform 
couched hi such language 
and with such aims and 

purposes is 
unassailable 



because it is distinctly 

Christian in origin and 

purport, but in the 
hands of the 

Communists it is 
merely a snare to allure 
those who are 

oppressed by the prevailing 
economic 

maladjustment into 
accepting the iniquitous 

social and religious tenets 
of Lenin and Stalin. There 
is a very grave and 

subtle danger of infection 
from Communism. 

According to St. Thomas 

Aquinas, man is more 
than an individual with 
individual rights; he is a 
person with personal 
duties toward God 
Himself and his fellow 
man. 



As a person man 
cannot serve God 
without serving the 
common good. 

Special efforts are being made 

to win Negroes 

who are the victims of 

injustice. The Communists 
have as their 

objective 
a world war on God and the 
complete destruction of all 
supernatural and even 

natural religion. 

The Negroes 

are beginning to find out 

that wage slavery. 

is no improvement 

on chattel slavery. 

The Communists say 

that Christianity is a failure, 

but it is not a failure 

for the very good reason 

that it has not been tried. 



\* *'. 




31 



THE SPIRIT 

OF THE MASS 

Men always ring a little bell 
When the sacring time is near, 
And then shalt thou do 

reverence To Christ Jesus' 
own high 

presence; That thou may 
loose all sinful 

bonds Kneel and hold up 
both thy 

hands, 
For this is He that Judas sold 
That lifted up thou dost 

behold. And He was 
scourged and trod 

the way To shed His blood 
for all 

mankind. He died, He rose, 
He went to 

Heaven Whence He comes 
to judge 

mankind For all that each of 
us has 

done. This same is He thou 
lookst 

upon, This is the truth of 
Holy 

Church. 

— From a lay-folks' Mass 
Book, Thirteenth Century. 



THE SPIRIT 

FOR THE MASSES 

The central act of devotional 

life 
in the Catholic Church is the 
Holy Sacrifice of the 

Mass. 

The Sacrifice of the Mass is 
the unbloody repetition of 
the Sacrifice of the Cross. 

On the Cross of Calvary 
Christ gave His life to redeem 
the world. 

The life of Christ was a life of 

sacrifice. 
The life of a Christian must 
be I a life of sacrifice. 

We cannot imitate the sacri- 
fice of Christ on Calvary by 
trying to get all we can. 

We can only imitate the sacri- 
fice of Christ on Calvary by 
trying to give all we can. 

— Peter Maurin. 




32 



BOOK 2 



BIG SHOTS AND LITTLE SHOTS 



America is all shot to pieces 

since the little shots 

are no longer able 

to become big shots. 

When the little shots 

are not satisfied 

to remain little shots 

and try to become 

big shots, 

then the big shots 

are not satisfied 

to remain big shots 

and try to become 

bigger shots. 

And when the big shots 

become bigger shots 

then the little shots 

become littler shots. 

And when the little shots 

become littler shots 

because the big shots 

become bigger shots 

then the little shots 



get mad at the big shots. 

And when the little shots 

get mad at the big shots, 

because the big shots 

by becoming bigger shots 

make the little shots 

littler shots 

they shoot the big shots 

full of little shots. 

But by shooting the big shots 

full of little shots 

the little shots 

do not become big shots; 

they make everything all shot. 

And I don't like 

to see the little shots 

shoot the big shots 

full of little shots; 

that is why 

I am trying to shoot 

both the big shots 

and the little shots 

full of hot shots. 



35 



FOR CATHOLIC ACTION 



A Modern Plague 

Glenn Frank, 

president of Wisconsin Uni- 
versity, 

says: 

"What ails modern society 

is the separation of the 
spiritual from the material." 

Pope Pius XI 

calls this separation 

"a modern plague," 

or to speak more plainly 

"a pest." 

This separation of the spirit- 
ual from the material 

is what we call "secularism." 

Everything has been secular- 
ized, 

everything has been divorced 
from religion. 

We have divorced religion 
from education, we have 
divorced religion 
from politics, 

we have divorced religion 
from business. 

Secularism 

When religion has nothing to 
do with education, 

education is only information, 

plenty of facts 

and no understanding. 

When religion has nothing to 
do with politics, 

politics is only factionalism — 

"Let's turn the rascals out 

so our good friends can get 
in." 

When religion has nothing to 
do with business, 

business is only commercial- 
ism. 



And when religion has noth- 
ing to do with either educa- 
tion, politics or business, 

you have the religion of busi- 
ness taking the place of the 
business of religion. 

Spiritualizing 

Our modern educators, 

our modern politicians, 

our modern business men 

have taken religion from 
everything 

and have put commercialism 
into everything. 

And now we have to take 
commercialism out of every- 
thing 

and to put religion into 
everything. 

The way to take commercial- 
ism out of everything 

and to put religion into every- 
thing 

is not through political action. 

The way to take commercial 
ism out of everything 

and to put religion into every- 
thing 

is through Catholic Action. 

Business-Like 

Catholic Action is action by 
Catholics 

for Catholics and non- 
Catholics, 

Catholic Action is action by 
Catholic laymen 

in co-operation with the 
clergy. 

Catholic laymen and women 
have told the clergy, 

"Mind your own business 



36 



and don't butt into our bus- 
iness." 

So Catholic clergymen 

have ceased to mind the lay- 
man's business 

and the laymen have made a 
mess 

of their own business. 

And Catholic clergymen have 
tried to mind their business 

with a business-like technique 

borrowed from business- 
minded people. 
Roosevelt's Experiment 

And now business is bankrupt 

and Catholic clergymen don't 
know 

what is to be done about it. 

Not knowing what is to be 
done about it, 

Catholic clergymen have 
made up their mind 

to let George do it, 

to let the politicians do it, 

to let Roosevelt do it. 

So President Roosevelt is try- 
ing to do it 

with the help of college pro- 
fessors. 

So with the help of college 
professors 

President Roosevelt is making 
a stab at it 

through a hit-and-miss policy, 

through a policy of experi- 
ments, 

through a policy of muddling 
through. 

And while President Roose- 
velt is experimenting 
Catholic clergymen are 
wondering. 

The Forgotten Man 

The forgotten man has been 
forgotten 



because clergymen have for- 
gotten 

to rub shoulders with the for- 
gotten man. 

And clergymen have forgotten 

to rub shoulders with the for- 
gotten man 

because clergymen have for- 
gotten 

to use logic to find what is 
practical. 

And because clergymen have 
forgotten 

to use logic to find what is 
practical 

they have failed to give us a 
sociology 

that has something to do with 
theology. 

If there was a sociology 

that had something to do with 
theology 

it was the sociology of St. 
Francis of Assisi, 

St. Thomas Aquinas and 
Blessed Thomas More. 

But the sociology of St. 
Francis of Assisi, 

St. Thomas Aquinas and 
Blessed Thomas More 

was an Utopian sociology, 

and clergymen are not inter- 
ested in Utopias, 

not even Christian Utopias. 

Rome or Moscow 

And because clergymen are 
not interested 

in the sociology of St. Francis 
of Assisi, 

St. Thomas Aquinas and 
Blessed Thomas More, 

the forgotten man is becom- 
ing interested 

in the sociology of Karl Marx, 
Lenin and Stalin. 



37 



And because clergymen are 
not interested 

in a technique of leadership 

the forgotten man is becom- 
ing interested 

in a technique of dictatorship. 



And because clergymen are 

not interested 
in Dynamic Catholic Action 
the forgotten man is becom- 
ing interested in Dynamic 
Bolshevik Action. 



IS POLITICAL ACTION AN ANSWER? 

[In a letter to Peter, John J. Cummings urged the establish- 
ment of a Catholic political party. Peter's reply follows. (June, 
1934.)]' 

of bourgeois capitalism and 
the rugged collectivism of 
Bolshevik Communism. 
There is no substitute for 
Catholic Social Action. 
Fascist dictatorship makes the 

bed for Bolshevik 
dictatorship 

to lie in. A German 
Catholic in Canada 

writes us that the German 
Catholic 

Party which his father 
helped to 

found did a lot of 
harm to the 

Church. 
The Catholic Worker's School 
is a clearing-house of thought, 
and, therefore, welcomes the 
expression of any opinion. 
The Catholic Worker Move- 
ment 

fosters Catholic social action 
and not Catholic political 

action. 
While we disagree with you, 
We offer you the opportunity 
to freely express your views 
and win people to your cause. 
Your co-worker in Christ's 

Kingdom. 

PETER MAURIN, 



Dear John Cummings: 

As Father Fulton Sheen says: 

"The issue is between 

Christianity and paganism." 

The Communists say 

that Christianity is a failure. 

But it is not a failure, 

and this for the very good 
reason 

that it has not been tried. 

You would like to see the 
formation 

of a Catholic political party. 

Our Holy Father does not ask 
us 

to reconstruct the social order 

through Catholic political 
action, 

but through Catholic social 
action. 

Catholic political parties 

have been done away with 

in Italy, as well as Germany. 

You wpuld like to stop Com- 
munism, 

but a Catholic political party 

cannot stop Communism. 

Fascism, whether Catholic or 
Protestant, 

cannot stop Communism. 

Fascism is only a stop-gap 

between the rugged individ- 
ualism 



3fl 



COMMUNIST ACTION IN SCHOOLS 
A CHALLENGE TO CATHOLICS 



I Was Told 

I was told 

by a young Puerto Rican that 
the president of his school's 
study club was a Communist, 
and that in the meetings of 
the school's study club the 
Communist president did 
most of the talking and that 
the school teacher was an 
interested listener to the 
Communist president of the 
school's study club. I was 
told 

by the dean of a Catholic col- 
lege 
that Catholic professors 
of Catholic colleges have 
neither the knowledge 
nor the 

courage to bring 
Catholic social 

thought to the man of 
the street. 

Looking for Light 

So while Catholic professors 

of Catholic colleges 

do not have 

enough knowledge or courage 

to bring Catholic social 

thought 
to the man of the street, 
Communist propagandists yet 
in their 'teens find enough 
knowledge or 

courage 
to bring Communist social 

thought 
to the men of the school. 



The schools used to teach: "If 
you want peace prepare for 
war"; we prepared for war 
and are still looking for peace. 
The schools used to teach: "If 
you want prosperity save 
your money"; people saved 
their money, and we are still 
looking for 

prosperity. The modern man 
looks for 

thought 
so he can have light, and 
is unable to find it in our 
modern schools. 

Shouting With Rotarians 

According to Glenn Frank, 

president of the University of 
Wisconsin, 

"Schools reflect the environ- 
ment, 

they do not create it." 

According to Professor 
Meiklejohn, 

of the same university, 

students go to school 

not to be educated, 

but to be business men. 

Shortly after their graduation 

school graduates can be 
heard 

shouting with Rotarians: 

"Service for profits, 

Time is money, 

Cash and carry, 

Keep smiling, 

Business is business, 

Watch your step, 

How is the rush? 



39 



How are you making out? 
How is the world treating 

you? The law of supply 
and 

demand, Competition is the 
life of 

trade, Your dollar is your 
best 

friend." 

Things Have Changed 
A few years ago 
I went to the campus 
of New York universities 
to try to find out 
if I could make an impression 
on the depression 
by starting a rumpus 
on the campus. 
But 1 found out 
that agitation 
was not rampant 
on the campus; 
only business was rampant 
on the campus, 
although business 
is the bunk. 

But things have changed 
and Bolshevik agitation 
is now rampant 
on the campus. 
So thanks to our Bolshevik 

agitators, public schools, 
colleges and 

universities 
can now be made centers of 
Catholic agitation. 

Only Twenty-Five Cents 
But while Communist propa- 
gandists 
yet in their 'teens 
are learning the art 
of Communist agitation, 
Catholic teachers 
teaching in Catholic or public 

schools 



have a terrible sense of 
inferiority complex when it 
comes to Catholic agitation. 
While Communist propagan- 
dists 
yet in their 'teens are 
enough interested in 
Communist propaganda to 
buy the daily Communist 

paper 
named the Daily Worker, a 
great number of Catholic 

teachers teaching in 
Catholic or public 

schools 
have not yet found the way 
to gather twenty- five cents 
for a yearly subscription to 
the monthly CATHOLIC 
WORKER. 

A Protestant Agitator 

Catholic teachers teaching in 
Catholic or public 

schools 
who do not know how to pre- 
sent 
Catholic social thought either 
to the men on the street or to 
the pupils in the schools will 
be interested to learn that a 
Protestant agitator well 
known in Union Square is 
presenting the Thomistic 

doctrine 
of the Common €rood to the 
men of the street in the 
streets of Harlem. H. 
Hergenhan, such is his 

name, 
does not believe in the 
rugged individualism of 
capitalism 

or in the rugged nationalism 
of Fascism 



40 



or in the rugged collectivism 
of Bolshevism. 

The Common Good 

He believes in the gentle per- 

sonalism 
of gentlemen who are gentle, 
gentleness that finds its roots 
in the common doctrine of 
the Common Good. H. 
Hergenhan believes that the 
doctrine of the Common Good 
is common 

to humanists who are human, 
to Jews who are orthodox, to 
Protestants who are Christian 
and to Catholics who are 

Catholic. 
The Common Good movement 
is not a movement that 

divides, 
it is a movement that unites. 
The Common Good movement 
is not a new deal, it is an old 
game. The Common Good 
movement 

is not a revolution to the left, 
it is a revolution to the right. 



Tawney's Book 

When in 1891 Pope Leo XIII 
wrote his encyclical on the 
condition of labor he 
emphasized the lack of 

ethics 
in modern society. When 
in 1899 Thorstein 

Veblen wrote "The Theory 
of the 

Leisure Class" 
he emphasized the same thing. 
R. H. Tawney, then an Oxford 
student, learned that when 
the Canon 

Law, that is to say, the law 
of the 

Church, 
was the law of the land 
there were high ethics in 

society. So R. H. Tawney 
decided to 

study 
how society has passed down 
from the high ethics of the 

Canon Law 
to the no ethics of today. 
What R. H. Tawney found out 
about the history of ethics 
of the last five hundred years 
is embodied in his book, 
"Religion and the Rise of 
Capitalism." 



41 



SOCIAL STUDY SCHOOLS NEEDED 

** 3 ** how a path can be made 

from things as they are to 
things as they should be. A 
School of Social Studies 
would give us Catholic Action 
based on Catholic Thought 
realized in Catholic Institu- 
tions. 



Catholic Social Research 

"When a system fails to feed 
the poor 

it is time to look out 

for one that does," 

says Archbishop Keating of 
Liverpool. 

And because Archbishop 
Keating realized 

that our modern social order 

fails to feed the poor 

he founded in Oxford 

a Catholic Labor College. 

And the Catholic Labor 
College 

conducted in Oxford 

has been going on 

for the last twenty-five years. 

At its last general meeting 

Cardinal Bourne declared 

that we are badly in need 

of Catholic social research. 

If there had been more Cath- 
olic social research 

Catholics would not now 

pass the buck 

to the politicians. 

School of Social Studies 

To found a School of Social 

Studies, 
such was the aim of Father 
Patrick Sheely, S.J. In a 
School of Social Studies we 
would be able to learn why 
things are what they are In a 
School of Social Studies we 
would be able to learn how 
things would be if they were 
as they should be. In a School 
of Social Studies we would 
be able to learn 



Putting Patches 

Having no School of Social 

Studies, 
we don't know how to pass 
from things as they are to 
things as they should be. 
Having no School of Social 

Studies, we have no 
Catholic social 

program 
based on Catholic social i 
thought. Having no School of 
Social 

Studies, 
we try to put patches to the 
existing social order and call 
it a New Deal. Having no 
School of Social 

Studies, 
we let college professors 
carry on costly experiments 
at the expense of the tax- 
payers. Having no School of 
Social 

Studies, 
we are not occupied in 
reconstructing the social 

order 
as the Holy Father wants us 

to be. 

I Agree 

I agree with seven Bishops, 
three of whom are Arch- 
bishops, 



42 



that the Communist criticism 
of modern rugged individual- 
ism 

is a sound criticism. I agree 
with seven Bishops, three of 
whom are Archbishops, 
that the main social aim of 
the Communist Party is a 
sound social aim. I agree with 
seven Bishops, three of 
whom are Archbishops, That 
the Communists are not 

sound when they advocate 
class 

struggle 
in order to realize their 
sound social aim. I agree 
with the Apostolic 

Delegate 
when he advocates the prac- 
tice 
of the Seven Corporal and 
Seven Spiritual Works of 
Mercy 
as the best practical means 
of making man human to man. 

Personal Sacrifice To 
be our brother's keeper is 
what God wants us to do. To 
feed the hungry at a personal 
sacrifice is what God wants 
us to do. To clothe the naked 
at a personal sacrifice is what 
God wants us to do. 



To shelter the homeless 

at a personal sacrifice 

is what God wants us to do. 

To instruct the ignorant 

at a personal sacrifice 

is what God wants us to do. 

To serve man for God's sake 

is what God wants us to do. 

Reconstruction 

The Holy Father asks us 

to reconstruct the social order. 

The social order was once 
reconstructed 

after the fall of the Roman 
Empire. 

The Irish scholars were the 
leaders 

in the reconstruction of the 
social order 

after the fall of the Roman 
Empire. 

Through Round Table Dis- 
cussions 

scattered all over Europe 

as far as Constantinople 

the Irish scholars 

brought thought to the 
people. 

Through Houses of Hospi- 
tality 

the Irish scholars 

exemplified Christian charity. 

Through Farming Communes 

the Irish scholars 

made workers out of scholars 

and scholars out of workers. 



43 



Dr. C. Roper, Secretary of 
Commerce, 

suggested some time ago 

the 

establishment in Washington 

of a "Laboratory for Leader- 
ship in Public Affairs." 

H. McCall, assistant to 
Secretary Roper, 

says that "youth movements 

have occupied 

dominant and aggressive 
positions 

in the social and governmental 
changes 

that have taken place 

throughout the world 

since the World War." 

H. McCall proposes 

the establishment in Wash- 
ington 

"of a forum 

for study and training 

in public affairs." 

Colleges and universities 
have failed 
to give their students 
technique of leadership based 
on scholarship. 

And because colleges and 
universities have failed to 

make leaders out of their 
students, 

politicians propose to make 

bureaucrats out of 
them. College 

professors 

44 



College professors 

have failed 

to train their students 

in a technique of leadership, 

so their students wish to be 
trained 

in a technique of dictatorship. 

In Cuba, Germany, China, 

Mexico, Italy, Russia, 
dictators have found their 
greatest support among 
college students eager for 
action. Academic college 
professors are interested in 
thought, not in action. So we 
havte, on one hand | thought 
without action and on the 
other hand action without 
thought. 

People go to Washington 
asking the Federal Govern- 
ment 

to solve their economic prob- 
lems, 
while the Federal Government 
was never intended to solve 
men's economic 

problems. Catholic Action 
based on Catholic thought is 
the Catholic solution of 
men's economic problems. To 
impart Catholic thought 



and train in Catholic Action, 
such is the function I of 
Catholic universities. [Some 
way ought to be found [to 
send Catholic workers I to 
Catholic universities ;or to 
bring Catholic universi-; ties 
" to Catholic workers. iWhen 
Catholic scholars land 
Catholic workers become 
acquainted with each other 

Catholic workers 



will cease to be politically 
minded 

and begin to be scholarly 
minded. 

When Catholic scholars 

are dynamic 

and not academic 

and Catholic workers 

are scholars 

and not politicians 

we will have dynamic Cath- 
olic Action. 

Yours for dynamic Catholic 
Action, 

PETER MAURIN. 



WHEN CHRIST IS KING 



On Being Crazy 

People went crazy for 
Democracy, 

majority rule, mob rule, I 
Thlen they went crazy I for the 
War for Democracy, trying to 
bring Peace through War. 
Then they went crazy for 
Normalcy; then they 

went crazy for 
Technocracy; then they 

went crazy for the 
NRA 

and they say that I am crazy. 

They say that I am crazy 

because I refuse to be crazy 

the way everybody else is 

crazy. 
For, if I tried to be crazy the 

way everybody else is 
crazy 

I know that I would be crazy. 

So I persist in being crazy in 

my own crazy way and I am 

trying to make other people 

crazy 



my way. 

Not a Liberal 

They say that I am a radical. 

If I am a radical 

then I am not a liberal. 

The future will be different 

if we make the present differ- 
ent. 

But to make the present dif- 
ferent 

One must give up old tricks 

and start to play new tricks. 

But to give up old tricks 

and start to play new tricks 

one must be a fanatic. 

Liberals are so liberal about 
everything 

that they refuse to be fanat- 
ical 

about anything. 

And not being able to be 
fanatical 

about anything, 

Liberals cannot be liberators. 

They can only be liberals. 

Liberals refuse to be 



45 



religious, philosophical or eco- 
nomic fanatics and consent to 
be the worst kind of fanatics, 
liberal fanatics. 

Not a Conservative 
If I am a radical, 
then I am not a conservative. 
Conservatives try to believe 
that things are good enough 
to be let alone. 
But things are not good 

enough 
to be let alone. Conservatives 
try to believe that the world 
is getting 

better 
every day in every way. But 
the world is not getting 

better 
every day in every way. The 
world is getting worse every 
day in every way. And 

the world is getting 

worse 
every day in every way 
because the world is upside 

down. And conservatives do 
not 

know 
how to take the upside down 
and to put it right side up. 
When conservatives and rad- 
icals 

will come to an understanding 
they will take the upside 

down and they will put it 
right side 

up. 

A Radical Change The 
order of the day is to talk 
about the social 

order. 
Conservatives would like to 
keep it from changing 

46 



but they don't know how. 
Liberals try to patch it 
and call it a New Deal. 
Socialists want a change, 
but a gradual change. 
Communists want a change, 
an immediate change, but a 
Socialist change. 
Communists in Russia do not 
build Communism, they build 
Socialism. Communists want 
to pass from capitalism to 
Socialism and from Socialism 
to Communism. 
I want a change, and a 
radical change. I want a 
change from an acquisitive 
society to a functional 
society, from a society of go- 
getters to a society of go- 
givers. 

When Bankers Rule 
Modern society has made the 

bank account 
the standard of values. 
When the bank account 
becomes the standard of 

values 
the banker has the power, 
When the banker has the 

power 
the technician has to super- 
vise 
the making of profits. 
When the banker has the 

power 
the politician 

has to assure law and order 
in the profit-making system. 
When the banker has the 

power 
the educator trains students 
in the technique of profit 

making. 



When the banker has the 

power 
the clergyman is expected to 
bless the profit-making 

system 
or to join the unemployed. 
When the banker has the 

power 
the Sermon on the Mount is 
declared unpractical. When 
the banker has the 

power 
we have an acquisitive, 
not a functional society. 

When Christ Is King 

When the Sermon on the 

Mount 
is the standard of values 
then Christ is the Leader. 
When Christ is the Leader 
the priest is the mediator. 

When Christ is the Leader 

the educator 
trains the minds of the pupils 

so that they may understand 
the message of the priest. 
When Christ is the Leader 
the politician 
assures law and order 
according to the priest's 

teachings. 
When Christ is the Leader 
the technician 
devises ways and means 
for the economical production 
and distribution of goods. 
When Christ is the Leader 
the administrator adminis- 
trates 
according to the directions 
from the technicians. 
When Christ is the Leader 
we have a functional, 
not an acquisitive society. 



Rebellion IB Rebellion 

Boloney is boloney, 

no matter how you slice it, 

and rebellion is rebellion 

no matter when it happens, 

whether it is 

the religious rebellion 

of the 1 6th century 

or the political rebellion 

of the 1 8th century 

or the economic rebellion 

of the 20th century 

Someone said 

that the Catholic Church 

stands for rum, Romanism 

and rebellion. But the 
Catholic Church does 
not stand for rum, 
Romanism and rebellion. The 
Catholic Church stands for 
Rome, Reunion, and Re- 
construction. 

The Catholic Church stands, 
as Rome used to stand, for 
law and order. The Catholic 
Church stands for the reunion 
of our separated brothers 
The Catholic Church stands 
for the reconstruction, not 
the patching up, of the social 
order. 

Constructing the Social Order 

The Holy Father asks us to 
reconstruct the social order. 
The social order was con- 
structed 

by the first Christians 
through the daily practice of 
the Seven Corporal and 
Seven Spiritual Works of 
Mercy. To feed the hungry 

47 



at a personal sacrifice, 
to clothe the naked at a 
personal sacrifice, to 
shelter the homeless at 
a personal sacrifice, to 
instruct the ignorant at 
a personal sacrifice; 
such were the works of 
the first Christians in 
times of persecution. 



If you want to know more 

about it \ 

read the two following books: 

(a) "The Great Command 
ment of the Gospel" 

by the Apostolic Delegate, 

(b) "The Valerian Persecu 
tion," 

by Father Patrick Healy, of 
the Catholic University. 



CARL SCHMITT THE ARTIST 



Flying From America 

In his book entitled 
"Rediscovery of America" 
Waldo Frank says that 
America is a lost continent. 
And the way for America 
to rediscover itself is to go 
back to Mediterranean 

culture. 
According to Waldo Frank, 
Mediterranean culture 
embodied Greek philosophy 
plus the Roman system of law 
plus Christian morality. 
There are still a few spots 
around the Mediterranean Sea 
where the rugged individ- 
ualism 

of bourgeois capitalism has 
not yet penetrated. In one of 
these rare spots an American 
artist has decided to make his 
home. 

Carl Schmitt the Artist 
American Catholics thought 
that no one but Al Smith 
could save America. But it 
seems that Al Smith ' is as 
much at sea 



as President Roosevelt. But 
while Roosevelt is ex- 
perimenting 

and Al Smith is wondering, 
Carl Schmitt is planning. 
Carl Schmitt the artist plans 
to go to some Dalmatian 
island 

where people still combine 
cult, that is to say liturgy, 
with culture, that is to say 

literature, 
with cultivation, that is to say 
agriculture. 

What America Needs 
Carl Schmitt the artist does 
not want his ten children to 
be super salesmen, he wants 
them to be cultured 
peasants. Carl Schmitt the 
artist is far from thinking 
that all America needs is a 
good five-cent cigar, as Vice 
President Marshall was in 
the habit of saying. Carl 
Schmitt the artist thinks 
that America needs to be 
revitalized with healthy 
peasant blood from those 
parts of Europe 



48 



where the rugged individual- 
ism 
of bourgeois commercialism 
has not yet penetrated. 
Carl Schmitt the artist 
is not interested 
in any kind of New Deal; 
he is interested 
in the old Catholic game 
of the Seven Corporal 
and Seven Spiritual 
Works of Mercy. 

Carl Schmitt Believes 
Carl Schmitt believes 
that Catholicism 
has the solution 
of all man's problems. 
Carl Schmitt believes 
that the Catholic religion is 
the hope of the people, not 
the dope of the people. Carl 
Schmitt believes that the 
mysticism of the 

faith 
should not be separated 
from the mysteries of the 

faith. 
Carl Schmitt believes in 
ascetic theology as well 
as he believes in 
dogmatic theology. Carl 
Schmitt believes in a 
functional society and 
he does not believe in 
an acquisitive society. 
Carl Schmitt believes 



in a democratic aristocracy 
and he does not believe in a 
plutocratic democracy. 

What Makes Man Human 
Charles Peguy used to say 
"There are two things in this 

world, 
politics and mysticism." 
Politics is just politics and is 
not worth bothering 

about 
and mysticism is mysterious 
and is worth all our striving. 
To give and not to take, that 
is what makes man 

human. 
To serve and not to rule, 
that is what makes man 

human. 
To help and not to crush, 
that is what makes man 

human. 
To nourish and not to devour, 
that is what makes man 

human. 
And if need be to die 
and not to live, that is 
what makes man 

human. 
Ideals and not deals, 
that is what makes man 

human. 
Creed and not greed, 
that is what makes man 

human. 



FIGHTING COMMUNISM 

The Catholic Worker proposes The Catholic Worker proposes 



fighting Communism the way 
the first Christians fought 
pagan Romanism, through the 
works of mercy. 



lighting Communism the way 
the Irish scholars fought 
pagan feudalism, through 
Round-Table Discussions, 

49 



Farming Communes. 

The Communists do not build 

Communism, they build 
Socialism. The Catholic 
Worker does not build 
Catholic 

Socialism, 
it builds Catholic Com- 
munism. 
The Catholic Worker builds 
Catholic Communism the 
way the first Christians and 
the Irish scholars built 
Catholic Communism. The 
Catholic Worker believes that 
there is no better Com- 
munism 

than Catholic Communism, 
and that there is no better 

way 
to build Catholic Communism 
than by building Catholic 
Communes. Catholic 
Communes are not a new 
thing, they are an old thing. 
Catholic Communes are so old 
that Catholics have forgotten 
them. 



vented anything, not even 
the name Commune. The 
Communist ideal is the 
Common Good ideal — the 
ideal of Blessed Thomas 

More, the ideal of St. 
Thomas 

Aquinas, 
the ideal of the Irish scholars, 
the ideal of the first Chris- 
tians. The doctrine of the 
Common 

Good 
of St. Thomas Aquinas is still 
a Catholic doctrine. We don't 
need a new doctrine, we need 
an old technique. We need 
the old technique of the first 
Christians and the Irish 
scholars. What was good for 
the first 

Christians 
and the Irish scholars ought 
to be good enough for 

us. 
What was practical for them 
ought to be practical for us. 



HUMAN REHABILITATION 



Listening to the Pope 

Lincoln Steffens says: "The 
political problem is not a 
political problem; it is an 
economic problem." Peter 
Kropotkin says: "The 
economic problem is not an 
economic problem; it is an 
ethical problem." Thorstein 
Veblen says: "There are no 
ethics in modern society." 

50 



R. H. Tawney says: 
"There were high ethics 
in society 

when the Canon Law 
was the law of the land." 
The high ethics of the Canon 

Law 
are at the base of the Pope's 
encyclicals. So as George N. 
Shuster says: "It is a case of 
listening to the Pope 



or listening to nobody." For 
nobody but the Pope dares to 
talk ethics in terms of 
economics. 

Robertson's Book 
When, in 1891, Pope Leo XIII, 
sent out his famous encyclical 
on "The Condition of Labor," 
the rugged individualists of 
bourgeois capitalism paid 
little attention to what he had 
to say. When the year after, 
in 1892, a wealthy 
Englishman, John M. 
Robertson, published his book 
on "The Fallacy of Saving" he 
received still less attention. 
Whether they be financial 
magnates or captains of 
industry or distinguished 
economists, or plain college 
professors, they are perfectly 
willing to let disturbing 
prophets talk in the 
wilderness. 

Before the Crash 
Two years before the crash, in 

1927, 
I spoke to a Rotary Club on 
"The Fallacy of Saving," the 
same subject that John M. 
Robertson expounded in his 
book thirty-five years before. 
Like John M. Robertson, 
thirty-five years before, I told 
business men that if they 
continued to put money into 
business they would put 
business out of business. But 
business men thought that 
America had found the secret 



of mass distribution 

as well as the secret 

of mass production 

and that the day had come 

of a two-car-garage, 

a chicken in every pot 

and a sign "To Let" 

in front of every poorhouse. 

The Great Folly 
While John M. Robertson 

and I 
were telling people: "If you 
want prosperity, don't save 
your money," nobody paid 
any attention. People 
preferred to listen to President 
Coolidge, who was telling 
them just the opposite. On the 
fallacy of saving a great 
boom was promoted which 
was bound to be 

followed 
by a great depression, as 
was pointed out by a 
Minneapolis business 

man 
as far back as 1926. On the 
wave of the great 

boom 
people got crazy for stocks 
and stock promoters stocked 
people with stocks till they 
got stuck. So in October, 
1929, stocks ceased to go up 
and went down with a bang. 

We Were Told 

We were told in 1929 

that "business would go on 

as usual." 
We were told in 1930 that 
"the economic system was 
fundamentally sound." We 
were told in 1931 



51 



that "prosperity was 
around the corner." We 
were told in 1932 that 
"the depression was 

fought 
on one hundred fronts." We 
were told in 1933 that "most 
of the unemployed would be 
employed by Labor 

Day." 
And now we are told that "it 
is not a question of bringing 
back prosperity," that "it is 
not a question of economic 
recovery," that "it is not a 
question of emergency 
relief," that "it is a question 
of human rehabilitation." 

What Is Needed 

Our experienced business 
men, 

our clever politicians, 

our distinguished college 
professors, 

had to have the experiments 

of the NRA, AAA, CCC, PWA, 

CWA, and what not 

before they were able to learn 

that "it is not a question 

of economic recovery," 

that "it is a question 

of human rehabilitation." 

I am saying now 

to our experienced business 
men, 

our clever politicians, 

our distinguished college pro- 
fessors, 

that the way 

to make an impression 

on the depression 

is self-expression. 

I am saying now 

that the best thing 

52 



to give to labor 

is a philosophy of labor. 

Farming Communes 

The unemployed need free 
rent; they can have that on a 
Farming Commune. The 
unemployed need free fuel; 
they can cut that on a 
Farming Commune. -The 
unemployed need free food; 
they can raise that on a 
Farming Commune. The 
unemployed need to acquire 
skill; they can do that on a 
Farming Commune. The 
unemployed need to improve 
their minds; they can do that 
on a Farming Commune. The 
unemployed need spiritual 
guidance; they can have that 
on a Farming Commune. 

Professors of a Farming 
Commune 

Professors of a Farming Com- 
mune 

do not look 

for endowments; 

they leave that 

to the Farming Commune. 

Professors of a Farming Com- 
mune 

do not tell their students 

what to do; they show them 

how to do it. 

Professors of a Farming Com- 
mune 

do not tell their students 



to master subjects; 

they enable them 

to master situations. 

Professors of a Farming Com- 
mune 

do not prepare their students 
for a position 

where they will have to play 

somebody else's game; 

they train them 

for a profession, 

where they will be able to 
play 

their own game. 

Professors of a Farming Com- 
mune 

do not teach their students 

how to make 

profitable deals; 

they teach them 

how to realize 

worthy ideals. 

Laborers of a Farming 
Commune 

Laborers of a Farming Com- 
mune 
do not work for wages; they 
leave that to the Farming 
Commune. 



Laborers of a Farming Com- 
mune 

do not look 

for a bank account; 

they leave that 

to the Farming Commune. 

Laborers of a Farming Com- 
mune 

do not look 

for an insurance policy; 

they leave that 

to the Farming Commune. 

Laborers of a Farming Com- 
mune 

do not look 

for unemployment insurance, 

they leave that 

to the Farming Commune. 

Laborers of a Farming Com- 
mune 

do not look 

for an old-age pension; 

they leave that 

to the Farming Commune. 

Laborers of a Farming Com- 
mune 

do not look for economic 
security; 

they leave that 

to the Farming Commune. 



ESSAY ON COMMUNISM 



Not Communists 

There is nothing wrong with 
Communism, but there is 
something wrong with 
Bolshevism. The wrong thing 
with Bolshevism is that 
Bolshevists are not 
Communists; they are 
Socialists. For if the 
Bolshevists 



were Communists, 
they would build Com- 
munism. 
And the Bolshevists 
do not build Communism; 
they build Socialism; 
they build State Socialism. 
The Bolshevists probably 

hope 
that the State 
"will wither away," 



53 



and that they will be able to 

pass 
from State Socialism to 
Communism without State. 

Two Reds 
Some time ago 1 was 
discussing in Harlem with a 
Russian Red and an Irish 
Red. And the Russian Red 
understood me sooner than 
the Irish Red. Having 
understood what 1 was saying, 
the Russian Red started to 
explain to his friend, the 
Irish Red, what I was talking 
about. When the Russian Red 
had finished explaining, the 
Irish Red turned toward me 
and said that while he agreed 
with most of what I said he 
still believed that the 
Catholic Church was not the 
friend of the working-men. 
Many Catholics are much 
disappointed when Wall 
Street corporations 
or political organizations 
or Catholic associations 
fail to provide them 
with economic security. 
Looking for a Boss 
A Catholic working-man 
once said to me: 
"There is only one thing 
between me and the Reds, 
and that is a good job." 
Everybody 
is looking for a boss, 
and nobody wants 

54 



to be his own boss. And 
because everybody looks for 
a boss the Reds want the 
State to be the boss of 
everybody. Because 
everybody consents to play 
somebody else's game for the 
sake of a pay-envelope the 
Reds try to find the way to 
assure a pay-envelope to 
everybody so as to force 
everybody, to act like 
everybody. But nothing will 
be changed when the Reds 
will force everybody to act 
like everybody, since nobody 
is nobody when everybody 
tries to keep up with every- 
body. 

America and Russia 

American Republicans want 
their friends on the public 
payroll, but only their 
friends. American Democrats 
want their friends on the 
public payroll, but only their 
friends. But the Reds want 
everybody on the public 
payroll, not only their 
friends. The American idea is 
to keep the Government out 
of business and to put 
everybody into business. The 
Russian idea is to put the 
Government into business 
and to keep everybody out of 
business. But business 



is only business, 
whether it is 
the State business 
or private business; 
and I am trying 
to make it my business 
to put all business 
out of business, 
including the State business, 
which is a big business. 
Red and Green 
Our business managers have 
made such a mess of 

things 
that people are inclined 
to see Red. 

And when people see Red it 
is useless to present to them 
the Red, White and Blue, 
because they can no longer 

see 
the White and the Blue of 
the Red, White and Blue; all 
they can see is Red. The 
only way to keep people 
from seeing Red is to make 
them see Green. The only 
way to prevent a Red 
Revolution is to promote a 
Green Revolution. The only 
way to keep people from 
looking up to Red Russia of 
the twentieth century is to 
make them look up to Green 
Ireland of the seventh 
century. 

Then and Now 

Three thousand years ago 



when a Jew 

met a Jew 

he asked him 

"What can I do for you?" 

Now, when a Jew 

meets a Jew, 

he asks him 

"What can 1 get out of you?" 

Two thousand years ago, 

when a Greek 

met a Greek 

they started to philosophize. 

Now when a Greek 

meets a Greek 

they start a business. 

A thousand years ago 

when an Irishman 

met an Irishman 

they started a school. 

Now when an Irishman 

meets an Irishman 

you know what they start — 

1 don't have to tell you. 

Thousand Years Ago 

When Irish were Irish a 
thousand years ago, the 
Irish were scholars. And 
when the Irish were 

scholars 
the Irish were Greek scholars. 
And when the Irish were 

Greek scholars the Irish 
spoke Greek as well as Irish. 
And when the Irish spoke 

Greek 
as well as Irish, 
Greek was Irish 
to the Irish. 
Greek was Irish 
to the Irish and 
now Irish is 
Greek to the 
Irish. 



55 



Irish is Greek to the Irish 
now and Hebrew is Chinese 
to the Jews. 
Shouting With Anglo-Saxons 

Now that Irish is Greek 

to the Irish. 

and Jewish is Chinese 

to the Jews, 

they shout with the Anglo- 
Saxons: 

Service for profits 

Time is money 

Cash and carry 

Business is business 

Keep smiling 

Watch your step 

How is the rush? 

How are you making out? 

How is the world treating 
you? 

The law of supply and 
demand 

Competition is the life of 
trade 

Your dollar is your best 
friend 

So is your old man. 

So the Jews 

are no longer Jews. 

So the Irish 

are no longer Irish. 



So the Jews and the Irish 

are no longer green. 

And that is 

what makes the Reds 

Red. 

Palestine, Ireland, America 
It was forbidden to the Jews 
to hold title to land 
in Palestine. 
But it is not forbidden to the 

Jews 
to hold title to land 
in America. 

It was forbidden to the Irish 
to lend money at interest in 
Ireland But it is not 
forbidden to the 

Irish 
to lend money at interest in 
America. The Prophets of 
Israel and the Fathers of the 
Church wanted the Jews and 
the Irish to try to become 
better;' but the American 
politicians 

don't mind 
if the Jews and the Irish are 
trying to become better off in 
America. 

But America is not better off 
since the Jews and the Irish 
are trying to become better off 
in America. 




56 



A PROGRAM FOR IMMEDIATE NEEDS 



Social Missionaries 

A School of Social Studies 

would be the training ground 

for Social Missionaries, 

priests, laymen and women. 

As Al Smith says: 

"The social problem 

is not a problem 

for politicians, 

business men, 

and lawyers." 

The social problem 

is a problem 

for Social Missionaries, 

The task of Social Missionaries 

is not to help people 

to adjust themselves 

to the existing environment. 

The task of Social Missionaries 

is to teach people 

the difficult art 

of creating order 

out of chaos. 

To be a Social Missionary 

requires social-mindedness, 

historical-mindedness 

and practical idealism. 

Study Clubs 

Social Missionaries 
would be official leaders 
of Study Clubs. 
The conduct of a Study Club 
does not require 
a fluent speaker. 
As Bishop O'Hara says: 
"The purpose of Study Clubs 
is to make people articulate; 
and lectures do not help 
to make people articulate." 
Social Missionaries 
would be able 



to impart their knowledge 
through easy conversations. 
Easy conversations about 
things that matter would 
keep people from going to 
the movies, from talking 
politics, from cheap 
wisecracking. Easy 
conversation about things 
that matter would enable 
Catholics to understand 
Catholicism, to give an 
account of their faith, and to 
make non-Catholics curious 
about Catholicism 

Works of Mercy 

The best kind of apologetics 

is the kind of apologetics 

people do not have 

to apologize for. 

In the first centuries 

of Christianity 

pagans said about Christians: 

"See how they love each 

other." 
The love for God and neighbor 
was the characteristic of the 
first Christians. This love 
was expressed through the 
daily practice of the Works 
of Mercy. To feed the 
hungry, to clothe the naked, 
to shelter the homeless, to 
instruct the ignorant at a 
personal sacrifice was 
considered by the first 
Christians as the right thing 
to do. Surplus goods were 
considered 



57 



to be superfluous, 

and therefore 

to be used 

to help the needy members 

of the Mystical Body. 

Self-Employing Centers 

The remedy for unemploy- 
ment 

is employment, 

and there is no better em- 
ployment 

than self-employment. 

Self-Employing Centers 

are small shops 

where repairs can be made 

and workers can be found 

to do work outside. 

With the Self-Employing 
Centers 



could be connected Houses 
of Hospitality where the 
self-employing workers 
could find shelter. This 
complicated world is too 
complicated to be dealt with 
in an efficient manner by 
specialized technicians. 
Specialized technicians 
knowing more and more 
about less and less do not 
know , how to simplify a 
complicated world. We need 
fewer specialists and more 
encyclopedists, fewer 
masters of one trade and 
more jacks-of-all trades. 
** ]n ** 



FIVE DEFINITIONS 

[The following is an analysis by Peter Maurin of definitions 
given by John Strachey (Comrtmnist), Lawrence Dennis (Fas- 
cist) , Norman Thomas (Socialist) and Stanley High (Demo- 
crat) of their respective beliefs. (February, 1935.) ] 

that the Communist Party 
knows how to assure | the 
production and distribution 



What Communists Say They 
Believe 



Communists believe that the 
capitalist system has 
reached the point where it 
does no longer work. 
Communists believe that 
when the workers come to 
the realization of the 
downfall of capitalism they 
will no longer tolerate it. 
Communists believe that the 
capitalist class will resort to 
all means that may be in its 
power to maintain its 
existence. Communists 
believe 



in an orderly manner 
according to a predesigned 
plan. 

What Fascists Say They 
Believe 

Fascists believe in a national 
economy for the protection 
of national and private inter- 
ests. 

Fascists believe in the 
regulation of industries so as 
to assure 



58 



a wage for the worker and a 
dividend for the investor. 
Fascists believe in class 
collaboration under State 
supervision. Fascists 
believe in the co- 
operation of employers' 
unions and workers' 
unions. 

What Socialists Say They 
Believe 

Socialists believe 

in a gradual realization 

of a classless society. 

Socialists believe 

in the social ownership 

of natural resources 

and the means of production 

and distribution. 

Socialists believe 

in a transition period 

under democratic manage- 
ment 

between two economic 
systems, 

the system of production for 
use 

and the one of production for 
profits. 

Socialists believe 

in freedom of the press. 

freedom of assemblage, 

freedom of worship. 

What Democrats Say They 
Believe 

Democrats believe in 
universal suffrage, 
universal education 
freedom of opportunity. 
Democrats believe in the 
right of the rich 



to become richer and of the 
poor to try to become rich. 
Democrats believe in labor 
unions and financial 
corporations. Democrats 
believe in the law of supply 
and demand. 

What the Catholic Worker 
Believes 

The Catholic Worker believes 
in the gentle personalism of 
traditional Catholicism. The 
Catholic Worker believes in 
the personal obligation of 
looking after the needs of 
our brother. The Catholic 
Worker believes in the daily 
practice of the Works of 
Mercy. The Catholic Worker 
believes in Houses of 
Hospitality for the immediate 
relief of those who are in 
need. The Catholic Worker 
believes in the establishment 
of Farming Communes where 
each one works according to 
his ability and gets 
according to his need. The 
Catholic Worker believes in 
creating a new society 
within the shell of the old 
with the philosophy of the 

new, 
which is not a new philosophy 
but a very old philosophy, a 
philosophy so old that it 
looks like new. 



59 



A LETTER TO JOHN STRACHEY 
AND HIS READERS 



Force and Violence 

You say that "no Com- 
munist 

believes in 

or favors the use 

of force and violence." 

But the Communists 

believe in class war 

in the same way 

that the capitalists 

believe in class war. 

The capitalists believe 

in keeping what they have 

and in getting 

what other capitalists have. 

The Communists believe 

in getting 

what the capitalists have. 

To keep what they have 

the capitalists 

use all the means 

that the modern State 

allows them to use. 

To get what the capitalists 
have 

the Communists 

are not afraid to use 

all the means 

that the capitalists 

are allowed to use. 

Taking Over 

The aim of the Communists 

is to take over the control 

of the means of production 

and distribution. 

The means of production 

and distribution 

are now in the hands 

of capitalists. 

The class war is a war 

between Communists 



and capitalists 

over the control 

of the means of production 

and distribution. 

Patriots believe 

that the way to peace 

is to prepare for war. 

Communists believe 

that the way to bring about 

a classless society 

is a class war 

between the capitalist class 

and the working class. 

What Is Communism? 

Communists believe 

in capturing the State 

so as to be able 

to use it as a club 

to prevent anybody 

from becoming a capitalist. 

The Communist Manifesto 

defines Communism 

as "a state of society 

where each one works 

according to his ability 

and gets 

according to his needs." 

Using the power of the State 

will enable Communists 

to prevent anybody 

from becoming 

a successful capitalist 

but it will not 

make anybody 

Communist at heart. 

To be a Communist 

according to the definition 

of the Communist Manifesto 

is to be willing 

to give one's labor 



60 



for the benefit 

of a Communist community. 
What Labor Needs 

A Communist community. 

is a community 

with a common unity. 

A common belief 

is what makes the unity 

of a community. 

Norman Thomas says 

that "Ramsay MacDonald 

has failed to give to Labor 

a philosophy of labor." 

What Labor needs 

is not higher wages, 

shorter hours, 

sickness insurance, 

unemployment insurance, 

old age pensions. 

What Labor needs 

is not economic security. 

What Labor needs 

is a philosophy of labor. 

** n ** 

An Old Philosophy 

Norman Thomas 
as well as Ramsay MacDonald 
has failed to give to Labor 
a philosophy of labor. 
While the Communist Party 
carries on a class war, 
it is not giving to Labor 
a philosophy of labor. 
The Catholic Worker 
is trying to give to Labor 
a philosophy of labor 
and a technique 
in harmony 
with the philosophy. 
For we believe 
that we can create 
a new society 

Within the shell of the old, 
with the philosophy of the 
new, 



which is not a new philosophy 
but an old philosophy, a 
philosophy so old that it looks 
like new. Going Back You 
realize, 

as Robert Briffault realizes, 
that the British Empire is 
breaking down. Not only the 
British Empire, but all the 
other empires are breaking 
down. You realize as we 
realize that modern society 
"is parked in a blind-alley." 
And when one is parked in a 
blind-alley the only thing to 
do is to turn back. By giving 
to Labor a philosophy of 
labor we can go back to the 
time when people tried to be 
gentle personalists and refused 
to be rugged individualists, 
when gentlemen tried to be 
gentle living on the sweat of 
their own brow and not 
living on the sweat of 
somebody else's brow. 

Esprit 
The French magazine Esprit 
carried on a campaign for 
Communitarianism. In the 
January issue Emmanuel 
Mounier has a 32-page article 
on "Communitarian 

Revolution." 
Other articles are entitled: 
"Russian Communitarian 

Tradition," 

61 



"German Communitarian 

Tradition," "French 
Communitarian 

Tradition." 
The last article is entitled: 
"Christian Communities." The 
magazine Esprit is not a 
Catholic magazine. It is a 
magazine where Catholics, 
Protestants, Jews and 
Humanists are trying to 
promote a kind of society 
where man will be human to 
man. 

Communist Ideal 

Communism is an ideal 

but the Russian brand 

of Communism 

is not the ideal 

of Communism. 

The ideal of Communism 

is Irish Communism. 

Through Round-Table 
Discussions 

the Irish scholars 

brought thought 

to the people. 

Through Houses of Hospi- 
tality 

the Irish scholars 

emphasized Christian charity. 

Through Farming Communes 

the Irish scholars 

made scholars 

out of workers 

and workers 

out of scholars. 

You are trying 



to make a case for Russian 
Communism, which is not 
Communism but Socialism. I 
am trying to make a case for 
Irish Communism, which is 
the Communism of Christian 
communities. 

The Hope of the People 
We believe that religion is 
the hope of the people, not 
the dope of the people. We 
.believe that the world would 
be better off if people tried 
to become better and that 
people would become better 
if they stopped trying to 
become better off. We 

believe that the best way 

to be 
is to be 
what we want 
the other fellow to be. 
We believe that to be 
what we want 
the other fellow to be 
is to be 

what St. Francis 
wants us to be. 
We believe that to be 
[what St. Francis 
wants us to be 
is to be 

real Christians. Your 
fellow worker in 

Christ's Kingdom, 

PETER MAURIN. 



-62 



WHY NOT BE A BEGGAR? 



Share Your Wealth 

God wants us to be 

our brother's keeper. 

To feed the hungry, 

to clothe the naked, 

to shelter the homeless, 

to instruct the ignorant, 

at a personal sacrifice, 

is what God 

wants us to do. 

What we give to the poor 

for Christ's sake 

is what we carry with us 

when we die. 

As Jean Jacques Rousseau 

says: 
"When man dies he 
carries 

in his clutched hands only 
that which he has given 
away." 

Why Not Be a Beggar? 

People who are in need and 
are not afraid to beg give to 
people not in need the 
occasion to do good for 
goodness' sake. Modern 
society calls the beggar bum 
and panhandler and gives him 
the bum's rush. The Greeks 
used to say that people in 
need 



are the ambassadors of the 

gods. 
We read in the Gospel: "As 
long as you did it to one of 
the least of my brothers, 
you did it to me." While 
modern society calls the 
beggars bums and 
panhandlers, they are in 
fact the Ambassadors of 
God. To be God's 
Ambassador is something to 

be proud of. 

** 19 ** 

The Wisdom of Giving 

To give money to the poor 
is to enable the poor to buy. 
To enable the poor to buy 
is to improve the market. 
To improve the market is to 
help business. To help 
business is to reduce 
unemployment. To reduce 
unemployment is to reduce 
crime. To reduce crime is to 
reduce taxation. So why not 
give to the poor for 
business' sake, for 
humanity's sake, for God's 
sake? 

** n ** 



63 



IN THE LIGHT OF HISTORY 



* * 1 A * * 

The Communist Party 

The criticism of bourgeois 

capitalism 
by the Communist Party is 
the criticism of Victor 
Considerant used by Marx 
and Engels in the Communist 
Manifesto. The definition of 
Communism of the 
Communist Manifesto is the 
definition of Proudhon 
borrowed by Marx and 

Engels. The technique 
of class 

struggle is the 
technique advocated by 
Marx and 

Engels. The technique of 
proletarian 

dictatorship is the 
technique advocated 
by Lenin. 

The Catholic Worker 

The Catholic Worker criticism 

of bourgeois society 

is the criticism 

of St. Thomas More. 

The Catholic Worker aims 

are the aims 

of St. Thomas Aquinas 

in his doctrine 

of the Common Good. 

The Catholic Worker means 

are the daily practice 

of the Works of Mercy 

and the fostering 

of Farming Communes 

where scholars 

become workers 

and workers 



become scholars. 

** j5 ** 

1200— Guild System 

In 1200 A. D. 

there was no capitalist 

system, 
there was the guild system. 
The doctrine of the'guilds 
was the doctrine of the 
Common Good. People used 
to say, as they do now, 
"What can I do for you?" 
but they meant what they 

said. 
Now they say one thing and 
they mean another. They did 
not look for markets, they let 
the markets look for them. 

1400— Middle Men 

Around 1400 A. D. 

appears the middle man. 

He offers to buy the goods 

and to find a market. 

The guildsman 

thinks about the money 

offered for his goods 

and forgets the common good. 

And the middle man 

is not interested 

in selling useful goods 

but in making money 

on any kind of goods. 

And the consumer 

never meets the producer 

and the producer 

ceases to think 

in terms of service 

and begins to think 

in terms of profits. 



64 



1600— Banker 

Before John Calvin people 
were not allowed to lend 
money at interest. John 
Calvin decided to legalize 
money lending at interest in 
spite of the teachings of the 
Prophets of Israel and the 
Fathers of the 

Church. 
Protestant countries tried to 
keep up with John Calvin 
and money-lending at 
interest became the general 
practice. And money ceased 
to be a means of exchange 
and began to be a means to 
make money. So people lent 
money on time and started 
to think of time in terms of 
money and said to each 
other, "Time is money." 

1 700 — Manufacturer 

With the discovery of steam 

the factory system 

made its appearance. 

To take drudgery out of the 

home 
was supposed to be the aim of 
the manufacturer. So the 
guildsman left his shop and 
went to the factory. But the 
profit-making 

manufacturer found it 
more profitable to employ 
women than to employ men. 
So the women left the home 
and went to the factory. 
Soon the children followed 
the women 



in the factory. 

So the men have to stay at 

home 
while the women and children 
work in the factory. 

1800— Economist 
Since Adam Smith, who 
published his book in 1776, 
we have been told that 
competition is the life of trade 
and that it is a case of the 
survival of the fittest. So since 
1776 looking for markets has 
engaged men's activities. And 
since trade follows the 

flag, 
industrial nations have 
also become imperialist 
nations. The fight for 
markets between two 
industrial 

nations, 
England and Germany, 
was the main cause of 
the World War. 

1914— World War 
As President Wilson said, 
the World War 
was a commercial war. 
But a commercial war 
had to be idealized, 
so it was called 
a War for Democracy. 
But the War for Democracy 
did not bring Democracy, 
it brought 

Bolshevism in Russia, 
Fascism in Italy, 
Nazism in Germany. 

1929 — World Depression 

After the World War 
people tried to believe 

65 



that a New Era 

had dawned upon the world. 

People thought 

that they had found a solution 

to the problem 

of mass distribution. 

People thought 

that the time had come 

of a two-car garage, 

a chicken in every pot 

and a sign "To Let" 

in front of every poorhouse. 

And everybody 

wanted to cash in 

on the future prosperity. 

So stock promoters got busy 

and stocked people with 

stocks till they got 
stuck. 

1933— New Deal 

We were told in 1929 

that business would go on 

as usual. 

We were told in 1930 

that the economic system 

was fundamentally sound. 

We were told in 1931 

that prosperity 

was around the corner. 

We were told in 1932 

that the depression was 

fought 
on one hundred fronts. 
We were told in 1933 
that five million men 



would be employed 

by Labor Day. 

And in 1934 

people went crazy 

for the NRA. 

And in 1935 

the NRA is scrapped 

and economic recovery 

is a long way off. 

1933— The Catholic Worker 

The aim of the Catholic 

Worker 
is to create order out of 
chaos. The aim of the 
Catholic 

Worker 
is to help the unemployed to 
employ themselves. The aim 
of the Catholic 

Worker 
is to make an impression on 
the depression through 
expression. The aim of the 
Catholic 

Worker 
is to create a new society 
within the shell of the old 
with the philosophy of the 

new, which is not 
a new 

philosophy, 
but a very old philosophy, a 
philosophy so old that it 
looks like new. 




66 



TEACHERS, TRADERS 
AND TRICKSTERS 



No Recourse 
Politicians used to say: "We 
make prosperity through our 
wise policies." Business 
men used to say: "We make 
prosperity through our 
private 

enterprise." 
The workers did not seem to 
have anything to do about 
the matter. They were 
either put to work or thrown 
out of employment. And 
when unemployment 

came 
the workers had no recourse 
against the professed 
makers of prosperity — 
politicians and business men. 

Politics Is Politics 

A politician is an artist 

in the art 
of following the wind of 
public opinion. He who 
follows the wind of public 
opinion does not follow his 
own judgment. And he who 
does not 

follow 
his own judgment 
cannot lead people out 
of the beaten path. He 
is like 

the tail end of the dog 
trying to lead the head. 
When people stand back 
of politicians 



and politicians stand back 
of the people, people and 
politicians go around in a 
circle and get nowhere. 

Maker of Deals A 
business man is a maker of 
deals. He wants to close a 
profitable deal in the shortest 
possible time. To close a 
profitable deal in the shortest 
possible time he tells you 
what a good bargain you are 
getting. And while he tells 
you what a good bargain you 
are getting he is always 
thinking what a good bargain 
he is getting. He appeals 
to the selfishness in you 
to satisfy the selfishness 
in him. 

Business Is Selfishness 

Because everybody is 
naturally selfish business 
men say that business 
must be based on 
selfishness. But when 
business is based on 
selfishness everybody is 
busy becoming more 
selfish. And when 
everybody 

is busy becoming more 
selfish 

67 



we have classes and clashes. 

Teaching Subjects 

Our business managers don't 
know how to manage the 
things they try to manage 
because they don't understand 
the things they try to manage. 
So they turn to college 

professors 
in the hope of understanding 
the things they try to manage. 
But college professors do not 
profess anything; they only 
teach subjects. As teachers 
of subjects college professors 
may enable people to master 
subjects. But mastering 
subjects has never enabled 
anyone to master situations. 

Specialization 

A few years ago, 

1 asked a college professor 

to give me 

the formulation 

of those universal concepts 

embodied 

in the universal message 

of universal universities 

that will enable 

the common man 

to create 

a universal economy. 

And I was told 

by the college professor: 

"That is not my subject." 

Colleges and universities 

give to the students 

plenty of facts 

but very little understanding. 

They turn out specialists 

knowing more and more 

about less and less. 

68 



Another Experiment 

General Johnson says 

that the NRA 

was like a horse 

trying to pull 

in different directions. 

And when the Supreme Court 

examined the "whole thing" 

it came to the conclusion 

that the "whole thing" 

did not make sense. 

The Prohibition Law 

was called by Hoover 

"A noble experiment." 

The National Recovery Act 

was considered by all 

"A noble experiment." 

To live by experiment 

is known in philosophy 

under the name of 

pragmatism. 
The doctrine of pragmatism 
was exploded by Van Wyck 
Brooks. If the doctrine of 
pragmatism is wrong 
philosophically it must also 
be wrong economically. 

Christianity Untried 
Chesterton says: 
"The Christian ideal 
has not been tried 
and found wanting. 
It has been found difficult 
and left untried." 
Christianity has not been 

tried 
because people thought it 
was impractical. And 
men have tried 

everything except 
Christianity. And 
everything that men 
have tried has 
failed. 



And to fail 

in everything 

that one tries 

is not to be practical. 

Men will be practical 

when they try to practice 

the Christianity 

they profess 

to believe in. 

The Wisdom of Giving 

General Johnson used to say: 

"The problem of the 
depression is to increase 
the buying power land 
decrease the producing 
power." When people invest 
money 



they increase 

the producing power. 

When people spend money 

or give it to the poor 

they increase 

the buying power. 

To feed the hungry, 

clothe the naked, 

shelter the homeless 

at a sacrifice 

is what God 

wants us to do. 

"When man dies, 

he carries 

in his clutched hands 

only that 

which he has given away," 

says Jean Jacques Rousseau. 



THE COMMUNIST PARTY VS. 
THE CATHOLIC WORKER 



Historical Mission 

The Communist Party 
credits bourgeois capitalism 
with an historical mission. 
The Catholic Worker does 
nothing of the kind; it 
condemns it on general 
principles. The Communist 
Party throws the monkey- 
wrench of class-struggle into 
the economic machinery and 
in doing so delays the 
fulfilling of the historical 
mission it credits to 
capitalism. The Catholic 
Worker aims to create a new 
society 

within the shell of the old, 
with the philosophy of the 
new, 



which is not a new 

philosophy, 
but a very old philosophy, a 
philosophy so old that it 
looks like new. The 
Communist Party stands for 
proletarian dictatorship. 
The Catholic Worker 
stands for personalist 
leadership. 

Taking Back Our Thunder 
Announcing the coming out 
of the CATHOLIC WORKER, the 
editor of Columbia said that 
the CATHOLIC WORKER was 
stealing the thunder of the 
Communist Party. And seven 
American Bishops said in 
1933 that the criticism of 
the Communist Party 



69 



is a sound criticism. Writing 
about the Catholic 

Church, 
Albert Jay Nock said, 
"Rome will have to do more 
than to play a waiting game; 
she will have to make use of 
some of the dynamite 
inherent in her message." 
The CATHOLIC WORKER is 
making use of some of the 
dynamite inherent in the 
message of the Catholic 
Church. 

Taking Back Our Name 

The name Communism does 
not come from Karl 

Marx, 
it comes from Proudhon. 
Proudhon was a Frenchman 
and France is a country with 
a Catholic tradition. And 
Catholic tradition gave to 
Proudhon the word 
Communism. The word 
commune exists in French 
history since the 
eleventh century. The 
Communist Party has taken 
the word 

Communism from Catholic 
tradition and has failed to 
give us a sample of 
Communism. No member of 
the Communist 

Party 
has ever said 

that there was Communism in 
Soviet Russia. What they 
have in Soviet 

Russia 
is State Socialism. State 
Socialism is not part of 
Catholic tradition, but 
Catholic Communism is. 



When we call ourselves 
Catholic Communists we 
reclaim our own. 

Confused Marxists 

The Catholic Worker is 

accused 
of confusing the workers. 
We do not confuse the 

workers, 
they are already confused. 
Not only are the workers 

confused 
but Marxists themselves are 
confused. That's why we 
have a Communist Party a 
Workers' Party a Socialist 
Party a Socialist Labor Party. 
And Marxists are confused 
because Karl Marx himself 
was confused. So they write 
books to help to understand 
Karl 

Marx. 
But the writers of these books 
have not thrown any light 
on Karl Marx's confusion. 

Confused Catholics 

That the Catholic Worker 
confuses Marxists is an 
admitted fact. But many 
Catholics say that the 
Catholic Worker confuses 
also Catholics. But modern 
Catholics were always 
confused. Because they were 
confused modern Catholics 
listened to modern economists 
who were telling them that 
the time had come, at least 
in America, for a two-car 
garage, a chicken in every 
pot, 



70 



and a sign "To Let" 

in front of every poorhouse. 

And when the depression 

came 
they believed with everybody 
that prosperity was just 
around the corner. And when 
it failed to appear they tried 
to bring it back by backing 
the NRA. 

From a Non-Catholic 
A French non-Catholic, 
Andre Siegfried, says: The 
Puritan is proud to be rich. If 
he makes money he likes to 
tell himself that Divine 
Providence sends it to him. 
His wealth itself becomes in 
his eyes, as well as the eyes 
of others, a mark of God's 
blessing. A time comes when 
he no longer knows if he acts 
for duty's sake or for 
interest's sake. It becomes 
difficult 



in those conditions to make a 
demarcation between 
religious aspiration and the 
pursuit of wealth. 

From a Catholic 
An English Catholic, Henry 
Sommerville, says that those 
who want to 

find out 
the intellectual errors 
from which England is 

suffering 
ought to read the book of R. 
H. Tawney, a non-Catholic, 
entitled "Religion and the 
Rise of Capitalism." The 
religion taught by Christ 
does not make wealth a 
desirable objective. 
Puritanism, the most virile 
form of Protestantism, made 
the mistake of indorsing the 
pursuit of 

wealth in the name of 
religion. 



BOURGEOIS COLLEGES 



Catholic Bourgeois 

A bourgeois is a man 

who tries to be somebody, 

by trying to be like everybody, 

which makes him a nobody. 

Catholic bourgeois 

try to be 

like non-Catholic bourgeois 

and think they are 

just as good 

ns non-Catholic bourgeois 

Right after the war 

Catholic bourgeois 

tried to believe 



what non-Catholic bourgeois 

tried to believe, 

that the time had come 

in America 

for a two-car garage 

a chicken in every pot 

and a sign "To Let" 

in front of every poorhouse. 

And Catholic colleges 

as well as non-Catholic 

colleges 
turned out stock promoters, 
stock brokers and stock 
salesmen 



71 



who stocked people with 

stocks 
till they got stuck. 
** I5A ** 

Shouting With Rotarians 
Modern colleges 
give you 
a bit of this, 
a bit of that, 
a bit of something else 
and a degree. 

The act of giving a degree 
is called a commencement. 
And after the commencement 
the student commences 
to look for a job. 
In order to get a job 
he 'commences 
to shout with Rotarians: 
"Service for profits, 
Time is money, 
Cash and carry, 
Keep smiling, Business is 
business, Watch your 
step, How's the rush? 
How is the world treating 

you? Competition is the 
life of 

trade, Your dollar is 
your best 

friend." So's your 
old man. 

College Graduates 
Sociology is not a science, it 
is an art. The art of sociology 
is the art of creating order 
out of chaos. Bourgeois 
colleges turn out college 
graduates into a changing 
world without ever telling 
them how to keep it from 
changing 

72 



or how to change it 
so as to make it fit 
for college graduates. 
College graduates 
think in terms of jobs, 
not in terms of work. 
Since the world is upside 

down, 
taking the side down 
and putting it up should 
be the task of college 
graduates. But college 
graduates would rather 
play somebody else's game in 
a position than to create 
order out of chaos. 

An Unhappy Lot 

But the job providers 

are not on the job 

and college graduates 

are disappointed. 

They have degrees, 

but their degrees 

do not give them jobs. 

They had been told 

that the road to success 

is a college education. 

They have a college education 

and they do not know 

what to do 

with themselves. 

The overproduction 

of college graduates 

is a fertile ground 

for social demagogues. 

The unemployed college 

graduates are getting sore 
at their parents for sending 
them into colleges which have 
not prepared them for a 
changing world. And they 
ask themselves 



ti&m 




if their educators 
know what it is to be 
educated. 

Houses of Hospitality 

In the New Masses 

a Communist cartoonist 

represents 
a line of college graduates 
receiving their degrees from 
the Alma Mater and joining 
a soup line on the other side 
of the square. Social 
reconstruction will be the 
result of social indoctrination. 
But unemployed college 

graduates 
cannot be indoctrinated 
without first being fed, 
as well as clothed, as well 
as sheltered. Houses of 
Hospitality for 
unemployed college 

graduates are a 
pressing need 

Indoctrination 

In Houses of Hospitality 
unemployed college graduates 
will be fed, clothed, sheltered, 
as well as indoctrinated. 
Unemployed college 
graduates must be 
told why the things 
are 



what they are, 

how the things would be 

if they were 

as they should be 

and how a path 

can be made 

from the things 

as they are 

to the things 

as they should be. 

Unemployed college graduates 

must be told 

how to create 

a new society 

within the shell of the old 

with the philosophy of the 

new, 
which is not a new philosophy 
but a very old philosophy, a 
philosophy so old that it 
looks like new. 

On Farming Communes 

When unemployed college 

graduates 
will have been indoctrinated 
they will be moved to 
Farming Communes. On 
Farming Communes 
unemployed college graduates 
will be taught how to build 
their houses, how to gather 
their fuel, how to raise their 
food, how to make their 
furniture; 

73 



that is to say, 

how to employ themselves. 

Unemployed college gradu- 
ates 

must be taught 

how to use their hands. 

Unemployed college gradu- 
ates 

have time 

on their hands. 



And while time is on the 

hands 
of college graduates their 
heads don't function as they 
should function. On Farming 
Communes unemployed 
college graduates will learn 
to use both their hands and 
their heads. 



SOCIAL WORKERS AND WORKERS 



The training of social workers 

enables them to help people 

to adjust themselves 

to the existing environment. 

The training of social workers 

does not enable them 

to help people 

to change the environment. 

Social workers 

must become social-minded 

before they can be critics 

of the existing environment 




and free creative agents of 
the new environment. In 
Houses of Hospitality social 
workers can\acquire that art 
of human contacts and that 
social-mindedness or 
understanding of social 

forces 
which will make them critical 
of the existing environment 
and the free creative agents 
of a new environment. 



74 




BOOK 3 



BACK TO CHRIST- 
BACK TO THE LAND! 



On the Level 

Owen Young says: "We will 

never have prosperity 

as long as there is no balance 

between industry and 

agriculture." The farmer sells 

in an open market and is 

forced to buy in a restricted 

market. 

When the farmer gets 

a pair of overalls 

for a bushel of wheat 

the wheat and the overalls 

are on the level. 

When the farmer 

has to give 

two bushels of wheat 

for a pair of overalls 

the wheat and the overalls 

are not on the level. 

Wheat and overalls 

must be on the level. 

Industrialization 

Lenin said: 

"The world cannot be 

half industrial 

and half agricultural." 

England, Germany 

Japan and America 

nave become 

industrialized. 



Soviet Russia is trying to 
keep up with England, 
Germany, Japan and 
America. When all the 
world will be 
industrialized every 
country will be looking 
for foreign markets. But 
when every country will 
be industrialized you 
will not have foreign 
markets. 

Mechanized Labor 
Gandhi says: "Industrialism is 
evil." Industrialism is evil 
because it brings idleness both 
to the capitalist class and the 
working class. Idleness does 
no good either to the capitalist 
class or to the working class. 
Creative labor is what keeps 
people out of mischief. 
Creative labor is craft labor. 
Mechanized labor is not 
creative labor. 
No Pleasure in Their Work 

Carlyle says: "He who 
has found his work, 

77 



let him look 

for no other blessedness." 
But workmen cannot find 
happiness in mechanized 
work. As Charles Devas says, 
"The great majority having 
to perform some mechanized 
operation which requires 
little thought and allows no 
originality and which 
concerns an object in the 
transformation of which, 
whether previous or subse- 
quent, 

they have no part, cannot 
take pleasure in their work." 
As D. Marshall says, 
"Previously the workman 
fashioned every article with 
his own hands, bringing to 
bear on it all the skill of the 
craft which was his; now all 
of this is done by the 
machine." 

Industrialism and Art 

Eric Gill says: "The notion 
of work has been separated 
from the notion of art. The 
notion of the useful has 
been separated from the 
notion of the beautiful. 
The artist, that is to say, the 
responsible workman, has 
been separated from all 
other workmen. The factory 
hand has no responsibility 

78 



for what he produces. 

He has been reduced 

to a sub-human condition 

of intellectual irresponsibility. 

Industrialism 

has released the artist 

from the necessity 

of making anything useful. 

Industrialism 

has also released the work- 
man 

from making anything amus- 
ing." 

From a Chinese 

A Chinese says 

"I thought I had become Wes- 
ternized 

but how I am becoming re- 
patriated. 

The material progress of 
America 

had dazzled me. 

I wished while there 

to transplant what I saw 

to China. 

But now that I am home again 

I see that our two civilizations 

have irreconcilable differ- 
ences. 

Yours is a machine civiliza- 
tion; 

ours is a handicraft civiliza- 
tion. 

Your people work in 

factories; our people 

work in shops. 

Your people 

produce quantity things 

that are alike; 

our people 

produce quality things 

that are different. 



What would Western indus- 
trialism do to us? Our people 
would become robots. Our 
cultural traditions would be 
destroyed." 

Regard for the Soil 

Andrew Nelson Lytle says: 
"The escape from industrial- 
ism 

is not in Socialism or in 
Sovietism. The answer lies in 
a return to a society where 
agriculture is practiced by 
most of the people. It is in 
fact impossible for any 
culture to be sound and 
healthy without a proper 
respect and proper regard for 
the soil, no matter 
how many urban dwellers 
think that their food comes 
from groceries and 
delicatessens or their milk 
from tin cans. This ignorance 
does not release them from a 
final dependence 



upon the farm." 

Up to Catholics 

Ralph Adams Cram says 

"What 1 propose 

is that Catholics 

should take up 

this back-to-the-land problem 

and put it into operation. 

Why Catholics? 

Because they realize 

more clearly than any others 

the shortcomings 

of the old capitalist 

industrial system. 

They, better than others, 

see the threat 

that impends. 

They alone understand 

that while the family 

is the primary social unit, 

the community comes next. 

And there is 

no sound 

and righteous 

and enduring community 

where all its members 

are not substantially 

of one mind 

in matters of the spirit — 

that is to say, 

of religion." 

1 h 




79 



INSTITUTIONS VS. CORPORATIONS 



In the first issue 

of the CATHOLIC WORKER 

appeared this, essay: 

Institutions and Corporations 

Jean Jacques Rousseau says: 

"Man is naturally good, 

but institutions make him 
bad, 

so let us 

overthrow institutions." 

I say: Man is partly good 

and partly bad, 

,but corporations, 

not institutions, 

make him worse. 

"An institution," says Emer- 
son, 

"is the extension 

of the soul of a man." 

Institutions are founded 

to foster the welfare 

of the masses. 

Corporations are organized 

to promote wealth 

for the few. 

So let us found 

smaller and better 

institutions 

and not promote 

bigger and better 

corporations. 

Some Institutions 

Round-Table Discussions to 
learn from scholars how the 
things would be if they were 
as they should be. Campion 
Propaganda Committees 
for the indoctrination of the 
man of the street. 



Maternity Guilds for the 
welfare of needy 
mothers bringing young 
children into the world. 
Houses of Hospitality to 
give to the rich the 
opportunity to serve the 
poor. Farming 
Communes where the 
scholars may become 
workers so the workers 
may be scholars. 

American Institutions 

The American 
Constitution, 

the American Congress, 

the American Supreme Court 

are also considered 

as institutions. 

The American Constitution 

was devised 

by the American Founders 

to protect the individual 

against the majority, 

whether in Congress 

or government. 

The American Supreme Court 

was established by the 
Founders 

to watch over the Constitu- 
tion 

so as to prevent 

its misrepresentation 

and its misapplication. 

And when the NRA 

was brought to the Supreme 
Court 

for examination 

the Supreme Court found out 

that it did not harmonize 



80 



with the Constitution. 
The NRA 

The National Recovery Act 

promised Recovery 

and pursued Reformation. 

General Johnson says 

that the NRA 

was like a horse 

trying to pull 

in different directions. 

At the head of the horse 

stood Recovery, 

at the tail of the horse 

stood Reformation. 

The tail "wanted to be the 

head, 
the head did not want 
to be the tail, and the 
Supreme Court could not 
make head or tail out of 
it. 

The Supreme Court seems to 
admit that social reform 
cannot be brought about by 
promising Recovery and 
making the eagle scream. 

Bureaucracy 

Bureaucracy has failed, 

whether in America, 

in France or Germany. 

The failure of the NRA 

js a striking example 

'n America. 

In France we say: 

"Plus ca change, 

Plus c'est la meme chose. " 

[ The more it changes, 
the more it remains 

the same thing.] 

Governments change, 

but the bureaucracy remains. 



Political corruption 

has made the French people 

disgusted with their politi- 
cians. 

The most, efficient bureau- 
cracy 

was the German bureaucracy. 

And the faith in bureaucracy 

was so great 

that they failed 

to create a public opinion 

for democratic reform. 

So the Nazis beat them to it. 

and created a public opinion 

for racial demagogy. 

The Catholic Worker 

is trying to create 

a public opinion 

for Communitarian reform. 

Five Definitions 

A Bourgeois 

is a fellow 

who tries to be somebody 

by trying to be 

like everybody, 

which makes him 

a nobody. 

A Dictator 

is a fellow 

who does not hestitate 

to strike you over the head 

if you refuse to do 

what he wants you to do. 

A Leader 

is a fellow 

who refuses to be crazy 

the way everybody else is 

crazy 
and tries to be crazy in 
his own crazy way. A 
Bolshevist is a fellow 
who tries to get 

81 



what the other fellow has 

and to regulate 

what you should have 

A Communitarian 

is a fellow 

who refuses to be 

what the other fellow is 

and tries to be 

what he wants him to be. 

They and We 

People say: "They don't 
do this, they don't do 
that, they ought to do 
this, they ought to do 
that." Always "They" 
and never "I." People 
should say: "They are 
crazy for doing this and 
not doing that but I 
don't need to be crazy 
the way they are crazy." 
The Communitarian Revolu- 
tion 

is basically a personal 
revolution. It starts 
with I, 



not with They. 

One 1 plus one 1 

makes two I's 

and two I's make We. 

We is a community, 

while "they" is a crowd. 

A New Movement 

The Nazis, the Fascists 

and the Bolshevists 

are Totalitarians. 

The Catholic Worker 

is Communitarian. 

The principles of Communi- 
tarianism 

are expounded every month 

in the French magazine 
Esprit (the Spirit). 

Emmanuel Mounier, 

editor of the magazine, 

has, a book entitled 

"La Revolution Personnaliste 
et Communautaire. " 

Raymond de Becker 

is the leader in Belgium 

of the Communitarian move- 
ment. 

The Premier of Belgium, 

van Zeeland, 

is a Communitarian. 



A NEW SOCIAL ORDER 



The Hope of the People 

The Marxists say 

that religion 

is the dope of the people. 

Religion 

is not the dope of the people 

it is the hope of the people. 

Modern society 

is a materialist society 

because Christians have failed 

to translate the spiritual 



into the material. If 

Christians knew how to make 

a lasting impression 

on the materialist depression 

through spiritual expression 

Marxists would not say that 

religion 

is the dope of the people. As 

Raymond de Becker says: "The 

social task of the laity 



82 



Is the sanctification 

of secular life, 

or more exactly, 

the creation 

of a Christian secular life." 

The Christian Front 

The Christians who 
consider religion 
the hope of the people 
should not unite 
with the Marxists 
who consider religion 
the dope of the people. 
As the editors of the 
Christian Front say: 
"Marxism not only falsifies 
the origin and the end of man 
but it seeks to make of him 
an anonymous animal, 
a servant 

of the proletarian State." 
The editors of the Christian 

Front 
are not liberals, they think 
that men "must take their 
choice to stand for 
Christianity or to stand for 
what opposes 

it." 
They ask the Christians "to 
dissociate themselves from an 
un-Christian social 

order 
and prepare the way for a 
social order compatible with 
their beliefs." 

The New Apologetics to 
his lectures on the New 
Christendom Jacques 
Maritain emphasizes the 
necessity of laying the 
foundations of anew social 
order. 



Laying the foundations 

of a new social order 

is the task of the laity. 

The task of the laity 

is to do the pioneer work 

of creating order 

out of chaos. 

The clergy teach the princi- 
ples; 

the task of the laity 

is to apply them 

without involving the clergy 

in the application. 

The application to the social 
problems 

by the Catholic laity 

of the Catholic principles 

taught by the Catholic clergy 

is a new kind of apologetics, 

a kind of apologetics 

Catholics will not have 

to apologize for. 

Putting Idle Land to Use 

"The letter 'Putting the 
Land to Use' 

is worth a thousand 

of the panaceas 

and fantastic schemes 

of Upton Sinclair, 

Father Coughlin, 

Dr. Townsend 

and the whole bunch 

of brainless trustees 

who have been telling the 
President 

how to abolish unemployment 

and to restore prosperity 

by issuing more currency 

or by cutting down produc- 
tion. 

It is what 1 have been advo- 
cating 

for nearly fifty years. 

Give to the people 

83 



access to the millions of acres 

of vacant land 

held out of use by speculators 

and the burden 

on public relief funds 

would be quickly cut down 

at least one-half. 



If the principles behind 
the policy were fully 
applied it would 
altogether abolish 
unemployment. " 

BOLTON HALL 
("Three Acres and Liberty") 



IDLE HANDS AND IDLE LANDS 



Rendering a Great Service 

On my last trip west 

I was asked several times 

what I thought 

of Father Coughlin. 

My answer was 

that Father Coughlin 

was rendering 

a great service 

by taking from the bankers 

a prestige 

that was not due them. 

I was told 

by a Catholic banker 

that this prestige, 

given to the bankers 

by almost everybody, 

did no good 

to the bankers. 

Bankers knew 

that they did not know 

what it was all about, 

but thanks to Father Coughlin 

now everybody knows 

that the bankers 

never did know. 

Bolton Hall's Panacea 

In the January issue 

reference was made 

"to that whole bunch 

of brainless trustees." 

I was away 

when the paper was printed 



and was not able 

to correct the proofs. 

If I had been in New York 

I would have said 

that the last part 

was a quotation 

from a letter 

to the New York Times 

by Bolton Hall, 

author of "Three Acres and 
Liberty." 

Bolton Hall's panacea 

is ruralism, 

and I prefer ruralism 

to industrialism. 

The industrial revolution 

did not improve things; 

it made them worse. 

The industrial revolution 

has given us 

technological unemployment. 

And the best way 

to do away 

with technological unemploy- 
ment 

is to place idle hands 

on idle land. 

Brainless Trustees 

It was not through the trust 

in the brains 

of Father Coughlin 

that the NRA 

became a flop. 



It was through the trust in 
the brains "of that whole 
bunch of brainless trustees," 
as Bolton Hall puts it. 
According to General John- 
son, 

the NRA was like a 
horse trying to pull in 
different directions and 
therefore had to stand 
still. That "whole bunch 
of brainless trustees" 



were pragmatists; 

they were not 

Aristotelians. 

They would do better to go 
back 

to Aristotle 

and learn something 

about philosophy. 

And when they know some- 
thing 

about Aristotelian philosophy 

they may become interested 

in Thomistic philosophy 

and Augustinian theology. 



YES! I AM A RADICAL! 



Down to the Roots 

I was once thrown out 

of a Knights of Columbus 

meeting because, as the K. of 
C. official 

said, 
I was radical. 

I was introduced as a radical 
before the college students of 
a Franciscan college, And 
the Franciscan Father 

added 
"I am as radical as Peter 
Maurin." Speaking in a girls' 
college near St. Cloud, 
Minnesota, I was told by 
Bishop Busch, "Conservatives 
are up in a tree and you are 
trying to go down to the 
roots." 

Poor Conservatives 
After another meeting I was 
told by a sociologist 

I still think that you are 
a radical." 



And I told the sociologist 
"We have to pity those poor 
conservatives who don't 
know what to conserve; who 
find themselves living in a 
changing world while they 
do not know how to keep it 
from changing or how to 
change it to suit themselves." 

Radically Wrong 

Monsignor Fulton Sheen says: 

"Modern society is based on 
greed." 

Father McGowan says: 

"Modern society 

is based on systematic selfish- 
ness." 

Professor John Dewey says: 

"Modern society 

is based on rugged individual- 
ism." 

When conservatives 

try to conserve a society 

based on greed, 

85 



systematic selfishness and 
rugged individualism they 
try to conserve something 
that is radically wrong, 
for it as built on a 
wrong basis. And when 
conservatives try to 
conserve what is 
radically wrong they are 
also radically wrong. 

A New Society 

To be radically right 

is to go. to the roots 

by fostering a society 

based on creed, 

systematic unselfishness 

and gentle personalism. 

To foster a society 

based on creed 

instead of greed, 

on systematic unselfishness 

instead of systematic selfish- 
ness, 

on gentle personalism 

instead of rugged individual- 
ism, 

is to create a new society 

within the shell of the old 

with the philosophy of the 
new 



which is not a new 
philosophy but a very old 
philosophy, a philosophy so 
old that it looks like new. 
Creating Order 

Modern society is in a 
state of chaos. And 
what is chaos if not lack 
of order? Sociology is 
not a science, it is an 
art, 

the art of creating order out 
of chaos. All founders of 
orders made it their 
personal business 
to try to solve the problems 
of their own day. If 
religious orders made it their 
business to try to solve the 
problems of our own day by 
creating order out of chaos, 
the Catholic Church would 
be the dominant social 
dynamic force in our day 
and age. ** n ** 



COLONIAL EXPANSION 



Right or Wrong 

Some people say, 
"My country is 
always right." 
Some people say: 
"My country is 
always wrong." 
Some people say: 
"My country 



is sometimes right 

and sometimes wrong, 

but my country, 

right or wrong." 

To stick up for one's country 

when one's country is wrong 

does not make 

the country right. 

To stick up for the right 



86 



even when the world is wrong 
is the only way we know of 
to make everything right. 

Protecting France 

To protect French citizens 
living in Algeria the French 
took Algeria from the 
natives. To protect Algeria 
the French took control of 
Tunisia. To protect Senegal 
the French took Dahomey, 
the Gabon and the Congo. To 
protect the Isle of Reunion the 
French took Madagascar. 
They took Madagascar for 
another reason. The other 
reason was that the English 
wished to take it. When the 
English take something the 
French say, "The English do 
that because they are 
grabbers." When the French 
take something, 

the French say 

"We do that 

because we are 

good patriots." 

Protecting England 

To protect the British Isles 

the English took the sea. 

To protect the sea 

the English took Gilbraltar, 

Canada and India. 

To protect India 

the English went to Egypt 

To protect Egypt 

the English took the Soudan. 

To protect the Soudan 

the English forced the French 



to leave Fashoda. 

To protect the Cape and Natal 

the English took the 

Transvaal. So 
the English are 
just as good or 
just as bad as 
the French. 

Civilizing Ethiopia 

The French believe 

that trade follows the flag. 

So do the English, 

so do the Germans, 

so do the Japanese, 

so do the Italians. 

Italy is in Ethiopia 

for the same reason 

that the French 

are in Algeria, 

the English in India, 

the Japanese in Manchuria. 

The Italians say 

that the Ethiopians 

are not civilized. 

The last war proves 

that Europeans 

are no more civilized 

than the Africans. 

So Europeans 

ougth to find the way 

to become civilized 

before thinking 

about the best way 

to civilize Africans. 

League of Nations 

The League of Nations 
did not keep Japan from 
going to Manchuria or 
Italy 

from going to Ethiopia. 
The League of Nations is 
not a League based on 
right. 



87 



It is a League based 
on might. It is not a 
protection for poor 
nations against rich 
nations. It is a 
protection for rich 
nations against 
poor'nations. 

Moral Disarmament 

Theodore Roosevelt used to 
say: 

"If you want peace, 

prepare for war." 

So everybody prepared for 
war, 

but war preparations 

did not bring peace; 

they brought war. 

Since war preparations 

brought war, 

why not quit 

preparing for war? 

If nations prepare for peace 

instead of preparing for war, 

they may have peace. 

Aristide Briand used to say: 

"The best kind of disarma- 
ment 

is the disarmament 

of the heart." 

The disarmament of Germany 

by the Allies 



was not the product of a 
change of heart on the 
part of the Allies toward 
Germany. 

Room Could be Found 

There is too much wheat in 

the United States. There is 

too much cattle in Argentina. 

There are too many sheep in 

Australia. 

There are too many Germans 

in Germany, too many 

Italians in Italy, 

too many Japanese 

m Japan. 

Room could be found in the 
United States for the 
Germans, in Argentina for 
the Italians, 'in Australia for 
the Japanese. To make room 
for Germans, Italians, 
Japanese is a better way to 
establish peace than to build i 
more battleships, more 
submarines and more 
airplanes. 



THE COMMUNISM OF 
COMMUNITARIANISM 



Not Communists 

There is nothing wrong with 
Communism, but there is 
something wrong with 
Communists, The wrong 
thing with Communists is 
that they are not Communists, 
they-are Socialists. There is 
no Communism in Soviet 
Russia; there is State 
Socialism in Soviet Russia. 
Communism is a state of 
society where each one works 

according to his ability 

and gets according to his 
needs. 

The State has not withered 
away, 

the wage system prevails, 

and you can buy 

7% government bonds 

in Soviet Russia. 

By selling7% government 
bonds 

they are creating 

a parasitic class 
in Soviet Russia. 

**18** 

Communitarian Movement 

Communitarianism 

is the rediscovery 

and the exemplification 

of what the Kiwanis 

and Rotarians 

used to talk about, 

namely, 



the community spirit. 

Communitarianism 

is expounded every month 

in the French magazine Esprit. 

Emmanuel Mounier, 

the editor of the magazine, 

has a book entitled 

"La Revolution Personnaliste 
et Communautaire. " 

Raymond de Becker 

is the leader in Belgium 

of the Communitarian Move- 
ment. 

Dr. Kagawa, 

the Japanese co-operator, 

is truly imbued 

with the Communitarian 
spirit. 

The C. P. and C. M. 

The Communist Party 

credits bourgeois capitalism 

with an historical mission. 

The Communitarian Move- 
ment 

condemns bourgeois capital- 
ism 

on general principles. 

The Communist Party 

throws the monkey-wrench 

of class-struggle 

into the economic machinery 

and by doing so 

delays the fulfilling 

of the historical mission 

which it credits 

to bourgeois capitalism. 

The Communitarian Move- 
ment 

aims to create a new society 

within the shell of the old 



with the philosophy of the 

new, 
which is not a new philosophy 
but a very old philosophy, a 
philosophy so old that it 
looks like new. 



The Communist Party 

stands for proletarian dicta- 
torship. 

The Communitarian Move- 
ment 

stands for personal responsi- 
bility. 



FEEDING THE POOR 



At a Sacrifice 
In the first centuries 
of Christianity 
the hungry were fed 
at a personal sacrifice, 
the naked were clothed 
at a personal sacrifice, 
the homeless were sheltered 
at personal sacrifice. 
And because the poor 
were fed, clothed and shel- 
tered 
at a personal sacrifice, 
the pagans used to say 
about the Christians 
"See how they love each, 

other." 
In our own day 
the poor are no longer 
fed, clothed and sheltered 
at a personal sacrifice 
but at the expense 
of the taxpayers. 
And because the poor 
are no longer 
fed, clothed and sheltered 
at a personal sacrifice 



the pagans say about the 

Christians "See how they 
pass the buck." 

Four Million Catholics 

Four million Catholics are 
fed, clothed and sheltered by 
the politicians at the expense 
of the taxpayers. And those 
four million Catholics 
are badly fed, badly 
clothed and badly 
sheltered, by the 
politicians at the 
expense of the 
taxpayers. And 
because 

those four million Catholics 
are badly fed, badly clothed, 
badly sheltered, by the 
politicians at the expense of 
the taxpayers, they are 
indoctrinated by the 
Marxists in the Unemployed 
Councils, 



90 



RADICALS OF 

Shouting a Word 

Father Parsons says: 

"There is 

confusion of mind." 
When there is 
confusion of mind 
someone has only to 
shout a word and people 
flock. When Mussolini - 
shouted discipline 
people flocked. When 
Hitler shouted 
restoration people 
flocked. 

The Bight Word 

Mussolini's word is 

discipline. 

Hitler's word is 

restoration. 

My word is 

tradition. 

I am a radical 

of the right. 

I go right to the right 

because I know 

it is the only way 

not to get left. 

Sound principles 

are not new, 

they're very old; 

they are as old 

as eternity. 

The thing to do 

is to restate 

the never new 

and never old principles 

in the vernacular 

°f the man of the street. 

Then the man of the street 
will do 



THE RIGHT 

what the intellectual 
has failed to do; 
that is to say, 

"do something about it." 

** 19 ** Philosophy and 

Sophistry 

Mortimer Adler says: 
"Modern philosophers 
have not found 
anything new since 
Aristotle." 

Modern philosophers 

are not philosophers; 

they are sophists. 

Aristotle 

had to deal 

with sophists 

in his day and age. 

What Aristotle said 

to the sophists 

of his own day 

could be read 

with profit 

by modern philosophers. 

The City of God 

Jacques Maritain says: 

"There is more in man 

than man." 

Man was created 

in the image of God; 

therefore 

there is the image of God 

in man. 

There is more to life 

than life 

this side of the grave; 

there is life 

the other side of the grave. 

Science leads to biology, 

biology to psychology, 

psychology to philosophy, 



91 



philosophy to theology. 

Philosophy 

is the handmaid 

of theology. 

To build up the City of God, 

that is to say, 

to express the spiritual 

in the material 

through the use 

of pure means, 

such as the task 

of professing Christians 

in this day and age. 

Integral Humanism 
Through the influence of 
Maxim Gorki the 
Marxists 

have come to the conclusion 
that Marxist writers should 
be more than proletarian 
writers; that they should be 
cultural writers. Waldo Frank 
thinks that the cultural 
tradition must be brought to 
the proletarian masses, who 
will appreciate it much more 
than the acquisitive classes. 
What the Marxists call 
culture Maritain calls 
Socialist Humanism. But 
Socialist Humanism 



is not all Humanism, 
according to Maritain. In a 
book entitled 
"L 'Hu man is me integral" 
Jacques Maritain points out 
what differentiates Integral 
Humanism from Socialist 
Humanism. 

Thought and Action 
Integral Humanism is the 
Humanism of the Radicals 
of the Right. The Radicals of 
the Left are now talking 
about Cultural Tradition. 
The bourgeois idea is that 
culture is related to leisure. 
Eric Gill maintains that 
culture is related to work, 
not to leisure. Man is saved 
through faith and through 
works, and what one does 
has a lot to do with what 
one is. Thought and action 
must be combined. When 
thought is separated from 
action, it becomes academic. 
When thought is related to 
action it becomes dynamic. 



GO-GETTERS VS. GO-GIVERS 



Two Bourgeois 

The bourgeois capitalist 
believes in rugged individual- 
ism; 

The Bolshevist Socialist 
believes in rugged collectiv- 
ism. 



There is no difference 
between the rugged individ- 
ualism 

of bourgeois capitalism and 
the rugged collectivism of 
Bolshevist Socialism. The 
bourgeois capitalist 



92 



tries to keep 

what he has, 

and tries to get 

what the other fellow has. 

The Bolshevist Socialist 

tries to get 

what the bourgeois capitalist 

has. 
The Bolshevist Socialist is the 
son 

of the bourgeois capitalist, 
and the son is too much 
like'his father. All the sins of 
the father are found in the 
son. 

Bourgeois Capitalist 

The bourgeois capitalist 

calls himself conservative 

but has failed to conserve 

our cultural tradition. 

He thinks that culture 

is related to leisure. 

He does not think that culture 

is related to cult 

and to cultivation. 

He believes in power, 

and that money 

is the way to power. 

He believes that money 

can buy everything, 

whether it be labor or brains. 

But as the poet Emerson says, 

"People have only 

the power we give them." 

When people will cease 

selling their labor power 

or their brain power 

to the bourgeois capitalist, 

the bourgeois capitalist 

will cease being 

a gentleman of leisure 

and begin being 

a cultured gentleman. 



Bolshevist Socialist 

The Bolshevist Socialist is the 
spiritual son of the bourgeois 
capitalist; he credits 
bourgeois capitalism 
with an historic mission 
and fails to condemn it 
on general principles. 
The bourgeois Socialist 
does not believe in the 
profit system, but he does 
believe in the wage 
system. The bourgeois 
capitalist and his spiritual 
son, the Bolshevist 
Socialist, believe in 
getting all they can get 
and not in giving all they 
can give. The bourgeois 
capitalist and his spiritual 
son, the Bolshevist 
Socialist, are go-getters, 
not go-givers. 

The Personalist 
Communitarian 

A personalist 

is a go-giver, 

not a go-getter. 

He tries to give 

what he has, 

and does not 

try to get 

what the other fellow has. 

He tries to be good 

by doting good 

to the other fellow. 

He is altro-centered, 

not self-centered. 

He has a social doctrine 

of the common good 

He spreads the social doctrine 

93 



of the common good through 
words and deeds. He speaks 
through deeds as well as 
words, for he knows that 
deeds speak louder than 
words. Through words and 
deeds he brings into 
existence a common unity, 
the common unity of a 
community. 

Community Spirit 

Communitarianism 

is the rediscovery 

and the exemplification 

of what the Kiwanis 

and Rotarians 

used to talk about, 

namely, 

the community spirit. 

The community spirit 

is no more common 

than common sense 

is common. 

Everybody knows. 

that common sense 

is not common, 

but nobody believes 

that common sense 

should not be common. 

The community spirit 

should be common 

as well as common sense 

should be common. 

If common sense was common, 

Bolshevist Socialists 

would not be 

rugged collectivists; 

they would be 

Communitarian personalists. 

Franciscans and Jesuits 

Franciscans and Jesuits 
believe in the community 
spirit 



just as much 

as Kiwanis and Rotarians. 

While Kiwanis and Rotarians 

used to talk about the com- 
mon spirit, 

Franciscans and Jesuits 

did something about it. 

Kiwanis and Rotarians 

used to talk 

about service 

but never forgot 

profitable service. 

Franciscans and Jesuits 

may not say much 

about service, 

but continue to render 

unprofitable service. 

Franciscans and Jesuits 

believe in the responsibility 

of private property 

but they believe also 

in the practicality 

of voluntary poverty. 
Counsels of the Gospel 

Someone said 

that the Catholic Worker 

is taking monasticism 

out of the monasteries. 

The Counsels of the Gospel 

are for everybody, 

not only for monks. 

Franciscans and Jesuits 

are not monks. 

Franciscans are Friars, 

and the world is their monas- 
tery. 

Jesuits are the storm troops 

of the Catholic Church, 

and ready to be sent 

where the Holy Father 

wishes to send them. 

The Counsels of the Gospel 

are for everybody, 

and if everybody 

tried to live up to it 



94 



we would bring order 

out of chaos, 

and Chesterton would not 



have said 

that the Christian ideal 

has been left untried. 



COMMUNITARIAN PERSONALISM 



20 



Basic Power 



Bourgeois capitalism is 
based on the power of 
hiring and firing. Fascist 
Corporatism and Bolshevist 
Socialism are based on the 
power of life and death. 
Communitarian Personalism 
is based on the power of 
thought and example. 

Thinking Is Individual 



Thinking is individual, 

not collective. 

Fifty million Frenchmen 

may be wrong, 

while one Frenchman 

may be right. 

One thinks 

better than two, 

and two 

better than two hundred. 

The national thinking 
of Benito Mussolini, 
the racial thinking 
of Adolph Hitler 
and the mass thinking 
of Joseph Stalin 
are not what I mean 
by thinking. 
Read "The Crowd," 
by Gustave LeBon. 

Social Power 

Social power 

is more important 

than political power. 



And political power 

is not the road 

to social power. 

The road to social power 

is the right use 

of liberty. 

Read "Our Enemy the State" 

by Albert Jay Nock. 

Give Me Liberty 

Patrick Henry said, 

"Give me liberty, 

or give me death!" 

What makes man 

a man 

is the right use 

of liberty. 

The rugged individualists 

of the Liberty League, 

the strong-arm men 

of the Fascist State 

and the rugged collectivists 

of the Communist Party 

have not yet learned 

the right use 

of liberty. 

Read "Freedom in the Modern 

World," by Jacques 
Maritain. 

Leadership 

Everybody 

looks for a leader 

and nobody 

likes to be dictated to. 

Mussolini, Hitler and Stalin 

try to be at the same time 

leaders and dictators. 

A leader is a fellow 

who follows a 'cause 



95 



in words and deeds. A 
follower is a fellow who 
follows the leader because he 
sponsors the cause that the 
leader follows. Head 
"Leadership or Domination," 
by Paul Piggors. 
Paul Piggors 

makes a case for domination 
in times of crisis, and in this 
he is wrong. Domination is 
not the way to create order 
out of chaos. 

Leadership is always the way 
to create order out of chaos. 

Communitarian Personalism 

"A man is a man for all 
that," says Robert Burns. To 
bring out the man in man, 
such is the purpose of the 
Communitarian Movement. 
A Communitarian is a fellow 
who refuses to be what the 
other fellow is, and chooses 
to be what he wants the 
other fellow to be. 
Read "Easy Essays," 
by Peter Maurin. 



The Forgotten Man 

The forgotten man 

is forgotten 

because clergymen 

have forgotten 

to rub shoulders 

with the forgotten man. 

And clergymen 

have forgotten 

to rub shoulders 

with the forgotten man 

because clergymen 

have forgotten 

to use logic 

to discover what is practical. 

And because clergymen 

have forgotten 

to use logic 

to discover what is practical, 

they have failed 

to give us a sociology 

that has something to do 

with theology. 

The minimum standard 

has been emphasized, 

and the maximum standard 

has been minimized. 

Which makes Chesterton say 

that the Christian ideal 

has not been tried 

and found wanting, 

it has been found difficult 

and left untried. 

Read "Fire on the Earth," 

by Rev. Paul Hanly Furfey. 



96 



SUPERFLUOUS GOODS 



The Problem of Today 

General Johnson says that the 
problem of today is not to 
increase producing power, 
but to increase the consuming 
power. Saving to invest is 
considered a bourgeois virtue, 
while spending to consume is 
considered a bourgeois vice. 
While the thrifty bourgeois 
increases the producing power 
the bourgeois spendthrift 
increases the consuming 
power. 

With Our Superfluous Goods 

Bishop von Ketteler says 
that we are bound under pain 
of mortal sin to relieve the 
extreme needs of our needy 
brother with our superfluous 
goods. With our superfluous 
goods we build white 
elephants 

like the Empire State Build- 
ing. 

With our superfluous goods 
we build power houses 
which increase the producing 

power 
and therefore 
increase unemployment. 
With our superfluous goods 
we build colleges 
which turn out students 
into a changing world 
without telling them 
now to keep it from changing 

or how to change it 



to suit college graduates. 

** 91 ** 

Ambassadors of God 

What we give to the poor 

for Christ's sake 

is what we carry with us 

when we die. 

We are afraid 

to pauperize the poor 

because we are afraid 

to be poor. 

Pagan Greeks used to say 

that the poor 

"are the ambassadors 

of the gods." 

To become poor 

is to become 

an Ambassador of God. 

We Seem to Think 

St. Francis thought 

that to choose to be poor 

is just as good 

as if one should marry 

the most beautiful girl in the 

world. 
We seem to think that poor 
people are social nuisances 
and not the Ambassadors of 

God. 
We seem to think that Lady 
Poverty is an ugly girl and 
not the beautiful girl that St. 
Francis of Assisi says she is. 
And because we think so, we 
refuse to feed the poor with 
our superfluous goods and let 
the politicians feed the poor 



97 



by going around 

like pickpockets, 

robbing Peter 

to pay Paul, 

and feeding the poor 

by soaking the rich. 

If 

If Spanish Catholics 

had fed the poor 

with their superfluous goods, 

the Reds would not now- 



want to relieve them of 
their superfluous goods. If 
American Catholics were 
building churches in rural 
districts with their 
superfluous goods they 
would increase the 
consuming power and make 
an impression on the 
depression through the 
expression of their Catholic 
faith. 



Fourth Open Letter to Father Lord, S.J. 



Dear Father: 

We are living 

hi a period of chaos. 

Our task must be 

to create order 

out of chaos. 

Creating order 

out of chaos 

ought to be the task 

of religious orders. 

The Jesuit Order 

would do well 

to open up 

Houses of Hospitality 

for the benefit 

of all college graduates, 

non-Catholics 

as well as Catholics. 

In those Houses of Hospitality 

unemployed college graduates 

would be given 

an historical background. 

Professor Carlton Hayes says 

that our religion 

is the only historical religion. 



A Catholic historical back- 
ground 

given the unemployed 
college graduates 

in Houses of Hospitality 

would be 

the best antidote 

to Marxist materialism. 

It ought also to be 

that kind of historical back- 
ground 

that would make them 

Co-operators 

or Guildists 

or Distributists 

or. Communitarians. 

It would make them 

look up to the individual, 

not to the State, 

for the solution 

of social problems. 

Yours for the Green Revolu- 
tion, 

PETER MAURIN. 



98 



THE PLURALIST STATE 

Secularism Is a Pest with social ethics. 



"What ails modern society 

is the separation 

of the spiritual 

from, the material," 

says Glenn Frank. 

That separation 

of the spiritual 

from the material 

is what we call 

secularism. 

"Secularism is a pest," 

says Pope Pius XI. 

Education without religion 

is only information. 

Politics without religion 

is only factionalism. 

Business without religion 

is only commercialism. 

Religion is good 

for weekdays 

as well as Sundays. 

**9?** 

Utilitarian Thought 

When English philosophers 

broke away 

from medieval thought 

they formulated 

what is called 

a utilitarian philosophy. 

Locke, Hobbes and Hume, 

the utilitarian philosophers, 

had for disciples 

the futilitarian economists 

of the Manchester School. 

Since the advent 

of the Manchester School, 

the School of Laissez Faire, 

religion has nothing to do 

with political economy 

because political economy 

has nothing to do 



Futilitarian Economics 

The Futilitarian Economists 
of the Manchester School 
thought that the general in- 
terest 

of human society would be 
well served if everybody was 
always mindful of his 
material interest. The 
Futilitarian Economists of the 
Manchester School thought 
that everything would be 
lovely if everybody took in 
each other's washing. The 
Futilitarian Economists of the 
Manchester School believed 
in the law of supply and 
demand and could never 
conceive of the possibility of 
too much supply and not 
enough demand. 

Futilitarian States 

The Futilitarian Economists 

of the Manchester School 

thought that business 

is just business 

and that politics 

should keep out of business. 

The Futilitarian Economists 

of the Manchester School 

thought that the State 

is only useful 

when it helps business men 

to collect their debts. 

The war of 1914 

and the peace of 1919 

are the logical result 

of the foolish notions 



99 



of the Futilitarian Economists 

of the Manchester School. 

England, France and America, 

our Futilitarian States, 

are now busy 

trying to solve the problems 

brought about 

by the lack of understanding 

of the Futilitarian Economists 

of the Manchester School. 

Totalitarian States 

England, France and America 
think they can muddle 

through with their 
eighteenth-century 

politics. 
Russia, Italy and Germany 
have given up the idea 
of two, three or more 
political parties 
and have adopted the idea 
of one political party. 
In the Futilitarian States 
everybody is told 
"Mind your own business." 
In the Totalitarian States 
everybody is told 
"Do what we tell you 
or out you go to the 
Concentration Camp." 

Pluralist Thought 

Humanists believe 

with Robert Burns 

that "a man is a man 

for all that." 

Theists believe 

that God created the world, 

that He is our Father, 

and that we are all brothers. 

Protestants believe 

that God, our Father, 

sent His only begotten Son 

to save the world 

from sin. 



Catholics believe 

that Jesus Christ 

established a Church, 

and that this Church 

is the Catholic Church. 

Humanists 

are just Humanists. 

Theists are Humanists 

plus Theists. 

Protestants are Humanists 

plus Theists 

plus Christians. 

Catholics are Humanists 

plus Theists 

plus Christians 

plus Catholics. 

Pluralist State 
The belief in human 
personality 

is the common belief of 
Humanists, Theists, 
Protestants, Catholics. On 
this common belief of 
human personality 
Humanists, Theists, 
Protestants, Catholics, could 
very well build up a 
Pluralist State. Futilitarian 
States, as well as 
Totalitarian States, are not 
based on the cultural 
tradition of the Western 
World. The Pluralist State 
is a State where Humanists 
try to be human, Orthodox 
Jews try to be Jews, 
Christian Protestants try to 
be Christians, and Catholics 
try to be Catholics. 

Allied Techniques 
Social movements 



based on personal responsi- 
bility 
are not hindered by the 
Pluralist State. The Co- 
operative Movement, the 
Guildist Movement, the 
Agrarian Movement, the 
Communitarian Movement, 
find themselves at home 
in the Pluralist State. 
The Pluralist State does 
not try 



to solve the social problem 
by passing laws or creating 
bureaus, but by removing 
from the statute book all the 
laws 

that hinder the activities of 
the social movements based 
on personal responsibility. 
The Pluralist State 
stands for leadership, not 
dictatorship. 



BACK TO NEWMANISM 



About Textbooks 

President Hutchins, of the 
University of Chicago, says: 
"How can we call a man 
educated who has not 
read any of the great 
books of the Western 
World? Yet today, 
it is entirely possible for 
a student to graduate 
from the finest American 
colleges without having 
read any of them, 
except perhaps Shakespeare. 
Of course the student may 
have read of those books, or at 
least °f their authors. But this 
knowledge 1S gained in 
general through textbooks. 
And the textbooks have 
probably 



done as much 

to degrade American intelli- 
gence as any single force." 

It Must Be Used 

Cardinal Newman says: 

"If the intellect 

is a good thing, 

then its cultivation 

is an excellent thing. 

It must be cultivated 

not only as a good thing, 

but as a useful thing. 

It must not be useful 

in any low, 

mechanical, 

material sense. 

It must be useful 

in the spreading 

of goodness. 

It must be used 

by the owner 

for the good 

of himself 

and for the good 

of the world." 



101 



OUTDOOR UNIVERSITIES 



** o o ** 

On to the Street 

Father Bede Jarrett says: 

"The truths of a generation 

become the platitudes 

of the next generation." 

Henrik Ibsen says: 

"Thought must be rewritten 

every twenty years." 

That is to say 

eternal principles 

must at all times 

be presented 

in the vernacular 

of the man on the street. 

Emerson says 

that the way 

to acquire the vernacular 

of the man of the street 

is to go to the street 

and listen 

to the man of the street. 

The way to become dynamic 

and cease to be academic 

is to rub shoulders 

with the men on the 
** street. 

24 

Hands and Heads 

Some one said 

that the Catholic Worker 

is a movement 

for down-and-outs. 

And it is a movement 

for down-and-outs, 

including 

down-and-out business men, 

down-and-out college gradu- 
ates 

and down-and-out college 
professors. 

In the Catholic Worker, 

besides being fed, 

102 



clothed and sheltered, 
people learn to use their 
hands as well as their heads. 
And while they learn to use 
their heads to guide their 
hands, the use of their 
hands, improves a great 
deal the working of their 
heads. 

Silver Springs 

In Silver Springs, a 
few miles 

from Washington, D. C, the 
Missionaries of the Holy 
Trinity combine manual 
labor with intellectual 
pursuits. They go to the 
Catholic 

University in the 
morning, build their own 
campus or cultivate their 
land in the afternoon and 
do their homework in the 
evening. While they do 
manual labor their mind is 
taken off their studies, 
which is to the benefit both 
of their health and their 
studies. In Silver Springs 
scholars 

try to be workers 
and workers try to 
be scholars. 

Three Books The 
machine is not an 
improvement on man's 
skill; it is an imitation of 
man's skill. Read "Post- 
Industrialism" 



by Arthur Penty. The 
best means are the pure 
means and the pure 
means are the heroic 
means. Read "Freedom 
in the Modern World" 
by Jacques Maritain. 
The future of the Church 
is on the land, 



not in the city; for a 
child is an asset on 
the land and a 
liability in the city. 
Read "The Church 
and the Land" 

by Father Vincent McNabb, 
O. P. 



SO-CALLED COMMUNISTS 

(Written for Bolshevik Socialists) 



Bolshevik Socialists 

I am criticized for saying 
that there is nothing wrong 
with Communism but that 
there is something wrong 
with Communists The wrong 
thing with 

Communists is 
that they are not Communists, 
they are State Socialists. 
"Communism," according to 
the definition of the 
Communist Manifesto, "is a 
state of society where each 
one works according to his 
ability and gets 
according to his needs." 
According to this definition 
there is no Communism in 
Soviet Russia. Communists do 
not deserve the name 
"Communists." They should 
be called 

'Bolshevik Socialists." 

In Bolshevik Russia 

The State withers away 
in a Communist society, 
but the State 
has not withered away 



in Bolshevik Russia. There is 
no wage system in a 
Communist society, but there 
is a wage system in Bolshevik 
Russia. There is no 
dictatorship in a Communist 
society, but there is a 
dictatorship in Bolshevik 
Russia. There is no investing 
class in a Communist society, 
but they sell Government 

bonds in Bolshevik 
Russia. 

Economic Determinism 

Bolshevik Socialists stand 
for economic deter- 
minism. 

According to the theory of 
economic determinism, 
bourgeois capitalism creates 
bourgeois ideology and 
Bolshevik Socialism creates 
Bolshevik ideology. 
According to the same theory, 
Bolshevik ideology can never 
be the product of bourgeois 
capitalism. But Marx and 
Lenin expressed Bolshevik 
ideology while living under 
bourgeois capitalism. 

103 



Marx and Lenin 

must be a mystery 

to Bolshevik Socialists. 

Class Struggle 

Bolshevik Socialists credit 
bourgeois capitalism with an 
historical mission. If 
bourgeois capitalism fulfills 
an historical mission, it 
should not be interfered 

with 
in the fulfilling of that 
historical mission. When 
Bolshevik Socialists foster the 
class-struggle, they delay the 
fulfilling of the historical 
mission which they credit to 
bourgeois capitalism. There 
is no sense in delaying the 
fulfilling of the historical 
mission of bourgeois 
capitalism by throwing the 
monkey-wrench 
of class-struggle into the 
economic machinery. 

Proletarian Dictatorship 

Bolshevik Socialists stand for 

proletarian dictatorship. 

A bourgeois without money 

may be as bourgeois as a 

bourgeois with money. The 

bourgeois-minded proletarian 

and the bourgeois-minded 

capitalist 

are spiritually related. 

The bourgeois-minded 

proletarian 

is a chip off the old block — 

the bourgeois-minded 

capitalist. All the sins of the 

father — 

104 



the bourgeois-minded 
capitalist — 

are found in the son — 
the bourgeois-minded 
proletarian. 
The bourgeois-minded 
proletarian 
is no more fit to rule 
than the bourgeois-minded 
capitalist. 

Proletarian dictatorship, 
as well as 

capitalist dictatorship, 
is no substitute 
for personalist leadership. 

Personalist Leadership 

A Leader is a fellow 

who follows a cause 

A Follower is a fellow 

who follows the Leader, 

because he sponsors the cause 

that the Leader follows. 

Thought must be expressed 

in words and deeds, 

and deeds speak louder 

than words. 

To be a Leader 

requires thought 

as well as technique. 

The thought must appeal to 

reason, 
and the technique must be 
related to the 

thought. 

The Catholic Worker 

The Catholic Worker does 
not credit bourgeois 
capitalism with an historical 
mission. It condemns it on 
the general principle that 
labor is a gift, not a 
commodity. The Catholic 
Worker does not throw 



the monkey-wrench of class- 
struggle 

into the economic machinery. 

It aims to create 

a new society 

within the shell of the old 

with the philosophy of the 
new, 

which is not a new 
philosophy, 



but a very old philosophy, 
a philosophy so old that it 
looks like new. The 
Catholic Worker does not 
stand for proletarian 
dictatorship. It stands for 
personalist leadership. 



THE THINKING JOURNALIST 



It Is Bad News 

Mark Hanna used to say, 
"When a dog bites a man, it 
is not news; but when a 
man bites a dog, it is news." 
To let everybody know that 
a man has bitten a dog is 
not good news; it is bad 
news. 

Good Journalism 
To tell everybody 

that a man died 

leaving two million dollars, 

may be journalism, 

but it is not 

good journalism. 

But to tell everybody 

that the man died 

leaving two million dollars 

because he did not know 

how to take them with-him 

by giving them to the poor 

for Christ's sake 

during his lifetime 

Js good journalism. 

Good journalism 

is to give the news 

and the right comment 

°n the news. 

The value of journalism 



is the value of the comment 
given with the news. 

Public Opinion 

To be a good journalist 

is to say something interesting 

about interesting things 

or interesting people. 

The news is the occasion 

for the journalist 

to Convey his thinking 

to unthinking people. 

Nothing can be done 

without public opinion, 

and the opinion 

of thinking people 

who know how 

to transmit their thinking 

to unthinking people. 

Recorded Thinking 
A diary is a journal 
where a thinking man records 
his thinking. The Journal 
Intime of Frederic Amiel is 
the record of the thinking of 
Frederic Amiel. The thinking 
journalist imparts his 
thinking through a newspaper 
by relating his thinking to the 
news of the day. By relating 
his thinking to the news of 
the day, 



105 



the thinking journalist 
affects public opinion. 

Maker of History 

By affecting public opinion, 
the thinking journalist is a 
creative agent in the 
making of news that is fit 
to print. 



The thinking journalist 
is not satisfied to be 
just a recorder of 
modern history. The 
thinking journalist 
aims to be a maker-of 
that kind of history 
that is worth recording. 



CAESARISM OR PERSONALISM 



Caesar or God 

Christ says: 

"Render to Caesar 

the things that are Caesar's 

and to God 

the things that are God's." 

The Fascist Caesar, 

the Nazi Caesar, 

the Bolshevik Caesar 

are not satisfied 

with the things 

that are Caesar's; 

they also want 

the things that are God's. 

When Caesar sets up a claim 

to the things that are God's 

he sets himself up 

as God. 

And when Caesar 

sets himself up as a god 

he sets himself up 

as a faker. 

When Caesar 

sets himself up as a faker 

he should be denounced 

as a faker. 

Fascist Caesar 

The Fascist Caesar claims 
that the child belongs to the 
State. The child does not 
belong to the State; it 
belongs 

106 



to the parents. 

The child 

was given by God 

to the parents; 

he was not 

given by God 

to the State 

The parents 

must teach the child 

to serve God, 

from whom 

they received the child. 

When the parents 

allow the State 

to grab the child 

and to act 

toward the child 

as if God 

did not matter 

they lose their claim 

to the allegiance 

of the child. 

The Nazi Caesar 

The Nazi Caesar 

claims that there are 

superior races 

and inferior races. 

The superior race 

is always the one 

one happens to belong to. 

The inferior race 

is always the one 

that refuses to recognize 



that superiority 

and claims to be 

the superior race. 

If a race is superior 

to another race 

then the extermination 

of the inferior race 

is the moral duty 

of the superior race. 

The superior race 

tries to believe 

that God works 

through the superior race. 

The superior race 

conceives God 

as a racial god. 

The Bolshevik Caesar 

The Bolshevik Caesar 

says that there is no God, 

but that there is 

a messianic class 

and that the working class 

needs to be guided 

by those who are aware 

of the messianic mission 

of the working class. 

The Communist Party 

claims to be the guide 

of the working class 

in the fulfilling 

of its messianic mission. 

Those who contest 

the superior wisdom 

of the master minds . 

of the Communist Party 

are considered 

as the enemies 

of the Bolshevik revolution. 

Many old-timers 

i» the Bolshevik movement 

are .now considered 

the worst enemies 

of the Bolshevik revolution. 



** 



25 : 



The Use of Liberty 

Patrick Henry said; 

"Give me liberty 

or give me death." 

Liberty is a great thing, 

'but few people 

know how to use it. 

Some use liberty 

to become 

rugged individualists. 

Some would like to be 

rugged individualists, 

but don't know how, 

and choose to be 

rugged collectivists. 

Some use liberty 

by serving their 

fellowmen 

for God's sake. 

Some are moved by 

greed, 

some are moved by 

grudge, 

and some are moved by 

creed. 

Modern Education 

Thomas Jefferson said 

that 

the less government 

there is, 

the better it is. 

If the less 

government 

there is, 
the better it is, 
then the best kind of 

government 
is self-government. 
To teach people 
to govern themselves, 
such is the purpose 
of education. 
If we are threatened 
with Caesarism 
it is because educators 
have failed 
to educate. 
Modern educators 
do not educate 
because they lack 
unity of thought. 



107 



Modern educators 
ought to read 
Maritain's book, 



"Freedom in the Modern 
World." 

** 26 ** 



THE SIT-DOWN TECHNIQUE 



On Gandhi Lines 

Strike news doesn't strike 
me, but the sit-down strike 
is a different strike from 
the ordinary strike. In the 
sit-down strike you don't 
strike anybody either on 
the jaw or under the belt, 
you just sit down. The sit- 
down strike is essentially a 
peaceful strike. If the sit- 
down strike remains a sit- 
down strike, that is to say, 
a strike in which you strike 
by just sitting down, it 
may be a means of 
bringing about desirable 
results. The sit-down strike 
must be conducted on 
Gandhi lines, that is to say, 
according to the doctrine 
of pure means as 
expressed by Jacques 
Maritain. 

In the Middle Ages 

The capitalist system is a 
racketeering system. It is a 
racketeering system 
because it is a profiteering 
system. It is a profiteering 
system because it is 

108 



a profit system. And nobody 
has found the way to keep 
the profit system from 
becoming a profiteering 
system. Harold Laski says: 
"In the Middle Ages the idea 
of acquiring wealth was 
limited 

by a body of moral rules 
imposed under the sanction of 
religious authority." But 
modern business men tell the 
clergy: "Mind your own 
business and don't butt into 
our business." 

Economic Economy 

In the Middle Ages 

they had a doctrine, 

the doctrine 

of the Common Good. 

In the Middle Ages 

they had an economy 

which was economical. 

Their economy 

was based on the idea 

that God wants us 

to be our brothers' keepers. 

They believed 

in the right to work 

for the worker. 

They believed 

in being fair 

to the worker 

as well as the consumer. 

They believed 



in doing their work the 
best they knew how for 
the service of God and 
men. 

Proper Property 

Leon Harmel, who was an 
employer, not a labor leader, 
says: "We have lost the right 
concept of authority since the 
Renaissance." We have not 
only lost the right concept of 
authority, we have also lost 
the right concept of property. 
The use of property to 
acquire more property is not 
the (proper use of property. 
The right use of property is 
to enable the worker to do 
his work more effectively. 
The right use of property is 
not to compel the worker, 
under threat of unemploy- 
ment, 

to be a cog in the wheel 
of mass production. 

Speed-up System 

Bourgeois capitalists 

believe in the law 

of supply and demand. 

Through mass production, 

bourgeois capitalists 

increase the supply 

and decrease the demand. 

The speed-up system 

and the extensive use 

of improved machinery 

has given us 

technological unemployment. 

AS a Catholic worker 



said to me: 

"Ford speeds us up, 

making us do 

in one day 

three times as much work 

as before, 

then he lays us off." 

To speed up the workers 

and then lay them off 

is to deny the worker 

the right to work. 

Makers of Depressions 

Business men used to say: 
"We make prosperity through 
our private enterprise." 
According to business men, 
the workers have nothing to 
do with the making of 
prosperity. If the workers 
have nothing to do with the 
making of prosperity, they 
have nothing to do with the 
making of business 
depressions. The refusal of 
business men to accept the 
responsibility for business 
depressions is what makes the 
workers resort to sit-down 
strikes. If business men 
understood business they 
would find the way to 
increase the demand for 
manufactured products, 
instead of increasing the 

supply 
through the speed-up system 
and the extensive use of 
improved machinery. 

Collective Bargaining 

Business men 
have made 



109 



such a mess of things 

without workers' co-operation 

that they could do no worse 

with workers' co-operation. 

Because the workers 

want to co-operate 

with the business men 

in the running of business 

is the reason why 

they sit down. 

The sit-down strike 

is for the worker 

the means of bringing about 

collective bargaining. 

Collective bargaining 

should lead 

to compulsory arbitration. 

Collective bargaining 

and compulsory arbitration 

will assure the worker 

the right to work. 

In the Bumble Seat 

There is nothing wrong with 
the sit-down strike if it is 
used to bring about 
collective bargaining. The 
aim of the NRA was to bring 
about collective bargaining 
but, as Father Parsons said: 
"The NRA made the mistake 
of placing labor in the 
rumble seat." Labor must sit 
in the driver's seat — not in 
the rumble seat. Bourgeois 
capitalists are not such good 
drivers as to be able to drive 
without the co-operation of 
organized labor. 

110 



The Modern Mind 

Organized labor, 

whether it be 

the A. F. ofL. 

or the C. I. O., 

is far from knowing 

what to do 

with the economic setup. 

Organized labor, 

as well as 

organized capital, 

is the product 

of the modern mind. 

The modern mind 

is in such a fog 

that it cannot see the forest 

for the trees. 

The modern mind 

has been led astray 

by the liberal mind. 

The endorsement 

of liberal economics 

by the liberal mind 

has given us 

this separation 

of the spiritual 

from the material, 

which we call 

secularism. 

Paul Chanson 

Organized labor, 

organized capital, 

organized politics 

are essentially 

secularist minded. 

We need leaders 

to lead us 

in the making of a path 

from the things as they are 

to the things as they should be. 

I propose the formation 

of associations 

of Catholic employers 

as well as associations 



of Catholic union men. 
Employers and employees 
must be indoctrinated with 
the same doctrine. What is 
sauce for the goose is 
sauce for the gander. Paul 
Chanson, 



President of the Employers' 

Association 
of the Port of Calais, France, 
has written a book 
expounding this doctrine, 
"Workers' Rights and the 
Guildist Order." 



THE LAW OF HOLINESS 



Christ's Message 

"No man can serve two 

masters, 
God and Mammon." 
"Be perfect 

as your Heavenly Father is 
perfect." "If you want to be 
perfect sell all you have, give 
it to the poor and follow me." 

— New Testament. 
"These are hard words," says 
Robert Louis Stevenson, "but 
the hard words of a book 
were the only reason why 
the book was written." 

The Law of Holiness 

In his encyclical 

on St. Francis of Sales 

the Holy Father says: 

"We cannot accept the belief 

that this command of Christ 

concerns only 

a select and privileged group, 

and that all others 

may consider themselves 

pleasing to Him 

if they have attained 

a lesser degree 

of holiness. 

Quite the contrary is true, 



as appears from the 
generality of His 
words. The law of 
holiness embraces all 
men and admits of no 
exception." 

Rich and Poor 

There is a rub 

between the rich 

who like 

to get richer 

and the poor 

who don't like 

to get poorer. 

The rich, 

who like 

to get richer, 

turn to the Church 

to save them 

from the poor 

who don't like 

to get poorer. 

But the Church 

can only tell the rich 

who like 

to get richer, 

"Woe to you rich, 

who like 

to get richer, 

if you don't help the poor 

who don't like 

to get poorer." 



Ill 



UTILITARIANS, FUTILITARIANS, 
TOTALITARIAN 



Utilitarian Philosophers 

After a century 

of Protestantism, 

England and Scotland 

saw the coming out 

of a philosophical thought 

known in history 

as Utilitarian Philosophy. 

While Luther and Calvin 

discarded the authority of the 
Church 

the Utilitarian Philosophers 

discarded the authority 

of Divine Revelation. 

They tried to convince them- 
selves 

and convince other people 

that the Church and the Bible 

were a handicap, 

rather than a help, 

in man's striving 

towards the good life. 

Futilitarian Economists 

The Utilitarian Philosophers, 
Hobbes, Locke, Hume, were 
followed by the Futilitarian 
Economists, 

Adam Smith, Ricardo. The 
Futilitarian Economists 
thought that religion had 
nothing to do with business. 
They thought that everything 
would be lovely if everybody 
took in each other's washing. 
They thought that everybody 
should try to sell what he has 
to sell 

112 



to the highest bidder. So 
people started to think of 
time in terms of money, 
and ended by shouting: 
"Time is money!" 

Harold Laski Says 

Harold Laski, 

professor of Political Science 

in the London School of Eco- 
nomics, 

has this to say: 

"In the Middle Ages 

the idea of acquiring wealth 

was limited 

by a body of moral rules 

imposed under the sanction 

of religious authority. 

After 1500 

those rules were evaded, 

criticized, abandoned. 

New concepts were needed to 
legalize 

the new potentialities of 
wealth. 

The liberal doctrine 

is the philosophical justifica- 
tion 

of the new practices." 

** 97 ** 

Fascism and Marxism 

Now that economic liberalism 

is dying out, 

modern liberals 

find themselves 

on the spot. 

They try to escape, 

from what they consider to be 

an untenable position. 

In their attempt to escape 



the shifting sands of liberal- 
ism, 
they look for authority; not 
the authority of the teaching 
Church, but the authority of 
the political State, whether it 
be the Marxist State or the 
Fascist State. Fascism is a 
stop-gap between the 
dictatorship of bourgeois 
capitalism and the 
dictatorship of Marxian 
Socialism. 

Capitalism, Fascism, 
Communsim 

In an article 

published in the Christian 

Front, 
Charles P. Bruehl says: 
"Those who fondly believe 



that Fascism 

will save the world 

from Communism 

are laboring 

under a fatal delusion. 

The ideologies 

of those two 

are closely allied. 

They have too much in 

common 
and their differences 
can be readily effaced. 
The three, capitalism, 

Fascism, Communism are 
three in a chain. 
Imperceptibly one passes 
into the other. All three are 
fundamentally materialistic, 
secularistic, totalitarian." 



THE WAY TO FIGHT COMMUNISM 



Without Comments 

"I understand Catholic 

apologetics 
but I don't understand 
Catholic sociology." 

— A Catholic Editor. "Your 
stuff is new to us." — A 
Catholic Layman. 
"There is nothing new about 

it; it is Catholic doctrine." 
— A Catholic Priest. "You 
are an idealist and I am a 
materialist, but I like to 
listen to you." — A 
Communist. 

Twenty and Forty 

A. Dutch convert 



used to say: 

"When one is not a Socialist 

at twenty, 

there is something wrong 

with his heart; 

but if one is a Socialist 

at forty 

there is something wrong 

with his head." 

Dorothy Day, 

Grace Branham 

and Marguerite Gage 

were Socialists 

at twenty. 

And they did not 

wait to be forty 

to give up Socialism. 

So there is nothing wrong 

either with their hearts 

113 



or with their heads. 

Works of Mercy 

The order of the day in 
Catholic circles is to fight 
Communism. To denounce 
Communism in Catholic 
halls is not an efficient 
way to fight Communism. 
The daily practice of the 
Works of Mercy is a 
more efficient way to 
fight Communism. The 
daily practice of the 
Works of Mercy by the 
first Christians made the 
pagans say about the 
Christians "See how they 
love each other." 

Irish Scholars 

When the Irish scholars 
decided to lay the 
foundations 
of medieval Europe, 
they established: 
Centers of Thought 
in all the cities of Europe 
as far as Constantinople, 
where people 
could look for thought 
so they could have light. 
Houses of Hospitality 
where Christian charity 
was exemplified. 
Agricultural Centers 
where they combined 

(a) Cult— 

that is to say Liturgy 

(b) with Culture — 
that is to say Literature 

(c) with Cultivation — 
that is to say Agriculture. 

114 



Chinese Catholics 

Chinese Catholics 
are showing us the way 
to fight Communism. 
Non-Catholic writers 
are writing about 
the mode of living 
of the Brothers of St. 
John 

Baptist. 
Chinese Communists went 
to visit the Brothers and 
told them that their mode 
of living is more perfect 
than the mode of living 
of the Communist Party. 
The Brothers of St. John 

Baptist 
try to exemplify the 
Sermon on the Mount. 
The Sermon on the 
Mount is considered 
practical by the Brothers 
of St. John 

Baptist. 

Five Books 

If you want to know 

what industrialism 

has done to man, 

read "Man the 

Unknown," 

by Dr. Alexis Carrel. 

If you want to know 

how we got that way, 

read "A Guildsman's 

Interpretation of 

History," 

by Arthur Penty. 

If you want to know 

what it is 

to be a bourgeois, 

read "The Bourgeois 

Mind," 

by Nicholas Berdyaev 

If you want to know 

what religion 

has to do with culture, 



read "Enquiries Into 
Religion and Culture," by 
Christopher Dawson. If 
you want to know 



what to do with freedom, 
read "Freedom in the 
Modern World" by 
Jacques Maritain. 



AGAINST CLASS WAR 



28 



The Trouble Has Been 

Hilaire Belloc says the 
modern proletarian works 
less hours and does far 
less than his father. He is 
not even primarily in 
revolt against insecurity. 
The trouble has been that 
the masses of our towns 
lived under 

unbearable conditions. 
The contracts they were 
asked to fulfill were not 
contracts that were 
suitable to the dignity of 
man. There was no 
personal 

relation 
between the man who was 
exploited and the man 
who exploited him. 
Wealth had lost its sense 
of responsibility. 

Twin Cities 

In St. Paul 

there are few strikers 

and few Reds. 

In Minneapolis 

there are plenty of strikes 

and plenty of Reds. 

In St. Paul 



the employers try to play 
fair with the workers 
and the workers with the 
employers. In 
Minneapolis the 
employers choose to be 
rugged individualists and 
the workers consent to 
be rugged collectivists. 
Rugged individualists and 
rugged collectivists are 
spiritually related. 

Class-Consciousness 

Georges Sorel thought 
that violence is the 
midwife of existing 
societies. When the 
employers believe in 
violence the workers also 
believe in it. Class- 
consciousness among 
employers brings class- 
consciousness among the 
workers. To do away 
with class struggle we 
must first of all do away 
with class-consciousness 
among employers. The 
workers are what the 
employers make them. 



115 



When employers are 
moved by greed the 
workers are inclined to 
carry a grudge. 

Paul Chanson Says: 
Whether we like it or not 
the economic system is 
necessarily related to the 
regime of appropriation of the 
tools of production. If 
Bourgeois capitalism 
appropriates the ownership 
the worker becomes a serf. If 
Bolshevik Socialism 
monopolizes the ownership 



the worker's condition 

is not better. 

He is reduced 

to a state of slavery. 

Only a Guildist' 

and Communitarian economy 

will bring about 

the worker's emancipation. 

Paul Chanson, 

who says those things, 

is not a labor leader. 

He is the President 

of the Employers Association 

of the Port of Calais 

in France. 



FAITH AND REASON 



St. Thomas Aquinas believed 
in reason with faith. Martin 
Luther believed in faith 
without reason. Thomas 
Paine believed in reason 
without faith. Modern 
Liberals believe neither in 
faith nor reason. Modern 
Fascists believe in blood- 
thinking. Modern Marxists 
believe' 



in dialectic materialism. 

Mortimer Adler believes 

that philosophers 

have not found 

anything new 

since Aristotle. 

And St. Thomas Aquinas 

believed 
what Aristotle believed as 
well as what St. Augustine 
believed. 



UNPOPULAR FRONT 



Four in One 

The Unpopular Front 

is a front composed of: 

Humanists, 

who try to be human 

to man; 

Theists, 

who believe 

that God wants us 



to be our brother's keeper; 

Christians, 

who believe 

in the Sennon on the Mount 

as well as 

the Ten Commandments; 

Catholics, 

who believe 

in the Thomistic Doctrine 

of the Common Good. 



116 



BOOK 4 



WAR AND PEACE 



** 29 ** 

Barbarians and Civilized 

We call barbarians 

people living 

on the other side of the 

border. 
We call civilized 
people living 

on this side of the border. 
We civilized, living on this 
side of the 

border, 
are not ashamed to arm 
ourselves to the teeth so as 
to protect ourselves against 
the barbarians living on the 
other side. And when the 
barbarians born on the other 
side of the 

border invade us, we do not 
hesitate to kill them before 
we have tried to civilize them. 
So we civilized exterminate 
barbarians without civilizing 
them. And we persist in 
calling ourselves civilized. 

Germans and French 

After the fall 

of the Roman Empire 

German barbarians 



invaded Gaul, now called 
France. The German 
barbarians came as invaders 
and were civilized by the 
invaded. The Gallo- 
Gerrnans living in Gaul, 
now called France, were 
Christians. Through a 
Christian 

technique the Gallo- 
Romans made Christians 
out of the German invaders. 
So the German invaders 
gave up their religion as 
well as their language and 
took up the religion as 
well as the language of the 
invaded. 

Italians and Ethiopians 

Italian soldiers 

went to Ethiopia 

to civilize the Ethiopians. 

The Italian soldiers 

still think 

that invaders 

can civilize the invaded. 

But the Ethiopians 

do not like the way 

the Italian soldiers 

try to civilize them. 

The best way 



119 



to civilize the Ethiopians 

is to prepare 

Ethiopian young men 

for the priesthood. 

As Christopher Dawson says, 

culture 

has a lot to do 

with religion. 

Spaniards and Moors 

Moors from Morocco 

ruled part of Spain 

for eight hundred years. 

They imposed Mohamme- 
danism 

on the Spaniards 

through the power of the 
sword. 

After eight hundred years, 

the Spanish Christians 

decided to give the Moors 

a dose of their own medicine. 

So the Spanish Christians 

drove the Moors out of Spain 

through the power of the 
sword. 

Before the war, 

Spanish Christians 



failed to make use 

of the power of the word. 

Spanish Christians 

seem to have more faith 

in the power of the sword 

than the power of the word. 

So had the Moors 

when ruling part of Spain 

for eight hundred years. 

Stalinitcs and Trotskyites 
Eugene Lyons says that 
Lenin and Trotsky accepted 
the idea that the end 
justifies the means. They 
thought that an idealistic 
end could be reached by 
bloody means. Because they 
resorted to bloody means, 
Stalin resorts to bloody 
means. The State has not 
yet withered away and the 
Communist ideal is still out 
of sight. 



BUSINESS IS THE BUNK 



•k-k 1|) ** 

Money Making 

Business men are not 
in business for their 
health. They are in 
business to make 
money. Because 
business men are in 
business to make 
money they replace 
men with machinery. 
But as Mussolini says 
"Machines 

120 



do not eat." 

Because machines 

do not eat 

they decrease 

the consuming power 

and increase 

the producing power. 

Our economic system 

is out of joint 

because 

people with money 

do not buy 

and people without money 

cannot buy 



what they wish to buy. 
Providing Jobs 

In the years 
of prosperity 
the employers 
were providing jobs. 
But the job providers 
do no longer 
provide jobs. 
And the job hunters 
are sore 

because the job providers 
do no longer know 
how to provide jobs. 
And the job hunters 
turn to the State 
and ask the State 
to do for them 
what business men 
fail to do. 

Because business men 
do no longer know 
how to provide jobs, 
the State 
takes up the job 
of providing jobs. 
WPA 
Some one said 
that what is needed 
is a machine 
that could do the work 
of one man 

and would take ten men 
to run it. 

But as somebody else said, 
"We don't need it; 
we have it already: 
the WPA." 
In England 
they have the dole. 
Here, we don't have the dole; 
we have the WPA. 
WPA jobs 

cost three times as much 
as home relief. 



That money comes 

from taxpayers 

or investors 

in Government bonds. 

And because of it 

the Government 

is no longer able 

to balance the budget. 

Government Control 
Because the job providers 
sat down on the job of 
providing jobs, the 
Government took up the 
job. The job providers 
who talk about service 
and think about profits 
were told by technicians 
that the profit system 
could be made more 
profitable if machines 
were substituted. And 
now politicians are doing 
their best to take the 
profits out of the profit 
system. But you cannot 
take profits 

out of the profit system 
and still have the profit 
system. What you have is 
more and more 
Government control and 
less and less personal 
control. 

State Supervision 
Some one said: "There is 
no vision in Washington." 
I say: "There is a lot of 
supervision in 
Washington." Glenn 
Frank says: 



121 



"Where there is 

too much supervision 

people perish." 

State supervision 

leads to 

State bureaucracy. 

State bureaucracy 

leads to 

the Totalitarian State. 

In the Totalitarian State 

the individual exists 

for the State 

and not the State 

for the individual. 

Jeffersonian Democracy 
The Founders of America 
wrote a Declaration 



of the Independence 

of the individual. 

They established 

a Constitution 

for the protection 

of the individual. 

They set up 

nine watch-dogs 

to protect the Constitution 

against misinterpretation. 

Thomas Jefferson says that 

the less government 

there is, 

the better it is. 

The Totalitarian State 

is not a substitute 

for Jeffersonian Democracy. 



PEACE PREPAREDNESS 



1638-1938 

In 1638 — 

France and Sweden 

were helping Protestant 

Germany 
against Catholic Germany 
and Catholic Austria. In 
1938 — 

Protestant Germany is 
helping Catholic Spain. In 
1638 — 

Germany was divided 
into 300 principalities. 
In 1938— 

Germany and Austria 
form a united nation. 
After 300 years the 
French policy of 1638 
to keep Germany divided 
has proved to be a 
complete failure. 

Ethiopia and Austria 

France believes 

122 



in colonial expansion 
and denies to Germany 
colonial expansion. 
France went to Tunisia 
with the approval of 

Bismarck, 
who-did not deny to France 
colonial expansion. The 
Treaty of Versailles reduced 
Germany's colonial 

expansion as well as 
Continental 

expansion. 
The colonial expansion 
of Fascist Italy in 
Ethiopia and the 
Continental 

expansion 
of Nazi Germany in Austria 
is the result 

of the colonial expansion of 
both France and England. 

France and England 

President Wilson stood 
for a peace treaty 



without annexations or 

indemnities. 
Clemenceau and Lloyd 

George 
wanted to have their way 
and kept President Wilson 
from having his way In 
1919 — Clemenceau and 
Lloyd 

George 
had their way 

and now Mussolini and Hitler 
have their way. France and 
Italy, who have failed to 
revise the Treaty of 
Versailles, talk about good 
will whi A e Italy and 
Germany talk about force. 

Disarmament of the Heart 

Pope Benedict XV and 

Aristide Briand 
spoke about 

the disarmament of the heart. 
France and England, who 
refused to follow Wilson, 
refused also to follow Pope 
Benedict XV and 

Aristide Briand. 
They are increasing 

armaments in the fallacious 
hope that they will preserve 
peace 



by preparing for war. 

Before 1914 

they prepared for war 

and got it. 

Nations have too long 

prepared for war; 

it is about time 

they prepared for peace. 
A Practical Question 

Archbishop McNicholas says: 

"Governments 

have no fixed standards 

of morality 

and consequently 

no moral sense. 

They can scarcely settle 

the question of war 

for Christians. 

Christians see and know 

the injustice 

of practically all wars 

in our modern pagan world. 

There is the very practical 
question 

for informed Christians 

who acknowledge the 
supreme dominion 

of God. 

Will such Christians 

in our own country 

form a mighty league 

of conscientious non- 
combatants?" 



THE RACE PROBLEM 



The Jews think 
that they are better 
than the Negroes. 
The Germans think 
that they are better 
than the Jews. I 
don't think that 
the Jews are better 



than the Negroes 

or the Germans 

better than the Jews. 

The way for the Jews 

to be better 

than the Germans 

is to behave 

the way the Prophets 

want the Jews 



123 



to behave. 

The way for the Negroes 

to be better 

than the Jews 

or the Germans 

is to behave 

the way St. Augustine 

wants everybody 

to behave. 

Germans and Irish 
Hitler wants all the Germans 
to join the German Reich. 
Hitler seems to think that 
only the German Reich can 
make good Germans out of 
the Germans. According to 
Hitler's way of thinking, to 
make good soldiers out of 
the Germans is to make good 
Germans out of the 
Germans. When the Irish 
were Irish they did not try 
to make good soldiers out of 
the Irish, they tried 
to make good scholars 
out of the Irish. 

Soldiers and Scholars 
Soldiers rely on the power 
of the sword. Scholars rely 
on the power of the word. 
Soldiers think in terms of 
empire. Scholars think in 
terms of culture. When after 
the fall of the Roman 
Empire the Irish scholars 
made up their mind 

124 



to lay the foundations 
of medieval Europe, 
they established 
agricultural centers 
where they combined 
cult — 

that is to say liturgy, with 
culture — that is to say 
literature, with 
cultivation — that is to say 
agriculture. 
The Negro Problem 
There is in America a 
Negro problem. White 
people in America have 
hot yet found the right 
solution of the Negro 
problem. It is up to the 
Negroes to f hid the right 
solution of the Negro 
problem. When the 
Negroes try to force 
themselves on white 
people or to imitate white 
people they do not solve 
the Negro problem. The 
way for Negroes to solve 
the Negro problem is 
to behave not the 
way 

the white people behave 
but the way St. Augustine 
wants the white people to 
behave. 

The Power of Example 
The white people are in a 
mess and the Negro people 
will be in a mess as long 
as they try to keep up 



with white people. 

When the Negro people 

will have found the way 

out of their mess 

by evolving a technique 

in harmony 

with the ideology 

of St. Augustine 

the white people 

will no longer 

look down 



on Negro people 

but will look up 

to Negro people. 

When the white people 

will look up 

to the Negro people 

they will imitate 

the Negro people. 

The power of Negro people 

over white people 

will then be 

the power of example. 



NO PARTY LINE 



The Outstretched Hand 

The Marxists 

of Western Europe 

are stretching out 

their hand 

to Catholic Bishops. 

Referring 

to that outstretched hand, 

the Holy Father 

in an address 

to eleven French Bishops 

said last Fall 

to offer the outstretched hand 

because the Marxists 

do not have the truth 

and that our duty 

is to bring to them 

the Catholic truth. 

With the giving of the truth 

we must give to them 

assistance, 

said the Holy Father, 

through the practice 

of the Works of Mercy. 

Cardinal Verdier 

Cardinal Verdier 

has never been called a 

Fascist 
by Reds or Pinks. He 
was called to Rome 



by the Holy Father, 

who wanted to give him 

personal instructions 

on how to deal 

both with the Reds 

and the Fascists. 

What Cardinal Verdier, 

Archbishop of Paris, 

has to say 

about modern problems 

deserves much consideration, 

for he expresses the views 

of the Holy Father. 

Cardinal Lienard 

The Bishop of Lille was 
not satisfied with 
company unions which 
were fostered by Catholic 
employers. Bishop 
Lienard made up his 
mind to organize unions 
of Catholic workers. The 
existence of Catholic 
unions did not satisfy 
Catholic employers. 
Catholic employers 
accused Catholic unions 
of being Red unions. 

125 



The Church in Rome gave 
its approval to the Catholic 
unions founded by Bishop 
Lienard and the Holy 
Father made him a 
Cardinal. 

Cardinal Hinsley 

Archbishop Hinsley of 
Westminster took cracks at 
Mussolini while he waged a 
war in Ethiopia. Archbishop 
Hinsley was made a 
Cardinal last Fall. The 
Holy Father does not seem 
to object to the criticism of 
Mussolini 



by Archbishop Hinsley 
during the Ethiopian War. 

No Party Line 
The Catholic Worker is a 
free-lance movement, not 
a partisan movement. 
Some of the Bishops 
agree with our policies 
and some don't. We are 
criticized by many 
Catholics for some of our 
policies and especially our 
Spanish policy. The, 
Communist Party has a 
party line. The Catholic 
Worker has no party line. 
There is no party line in 
the Catholic Church. 



THE CURSE OF LIBERALISM 



Three Jews 

Harold Laski, 

an English Jew, 

says that liberals 

have endorsed 

bourgeois capitalism 

in the name of liberalism. 

Julien Benda, 

a French Jew, 

says that liberals 

have given up 

the search for truth 

and consented to become 

paid propagandists 

for nationalism 

as well as capitalism. 

Mortimer Adler, 

an American Jew, 

says that liberals 

are sophists 

and not philosophers. 

Let's Be Liberators 
The present 

126 



would be different 

if they had made the past 

different. 

The future 

will be different 

if we make the present 

different. 

To make the present different 

one must give up 

old habits 

and start to contract 

new habits. 

To give up 

old habits 

and start to contract 

new habits 

is to liberate oneself. 

To liberate oneself 

is to show others 

how to liberate themselves. 

Why be a liberal 

when you can be 

a liberator? 



Looking for Dictators 

Patrick Henry said: 

"Give me liberty 

or give me death." 

Men have liberty 

but intellectual liberals 

have failed to tell people 

what to do with it. 

And because men don't know 

what to do with liberty 

they look for dictators 

to tell them what to do. 



And the dictators tell them 
"You do what I tell you or I 
will knock your head off." 
Men look for dictators 
because intellectual liberals 
through their so-called liberal 
education have made man 
unknown to man. Intellectual 
liberals ought to read the 
book of Dr. Alexis Carrel, 
"Man the Unknown." 



BEYOND MARXISM 



U.S.S.R. 

The U.S.S.R. means the 
Union of Socialist Soviet 
Republics. There is no 
Communism in Soviet 
Russia. According to Karl 
Marx, "Communism is a 
society wherein one works 
according to his ability and 
gets 

according to his needs." 
Such a society is found in 
Catholic monasteries but not 
in Soviet Russia. That is 
why Strachey was told by 
Father McNabb, an English 
Dominican, "I am a 
Communist; 



you are only an amateur." 

Primitive Christianity 

In the beginning of 

Christianity the hungry 
were fed, the naked were 
clothed, the homeless were 
sheltered, the ignorant were 
instructed at a personal 
sacrifice. And the pagans 
used to say about the 
Christians, "See how they 
love each 
other." 
Father Arthur Ryan, born 
in Tipperary, used to call 
this period of history 
"Christian Communism." 
But it is 

a long, long way to 
Tipperary. 



127 



BUSINESS AND SUCH 



Priests and Policemen 

Jean Jacques Rousseau said: 

"Man is naturally good." 

Business men say: 

"Man is naturally bad; 

you can do nothing 

with human nature." 

If it is true, 

as business men say, 

that you can do nothing 

with human nature, 

then we need fewer priests 

and more policemen. 

But if God the Father 

sent His own begotten Son 

to redeem men, 

then we need more priests 

and fewer policemen. 

More Profitable 
Business men believe 
in the profit system. 
Because they believe 
in the profit system 
they try to make the 
profit system more 
profitable. In order to 
make the profit 
system more 
profitable business 
men replace men with 
machinery. It is true 



that machines 

don't strike, 

but neither do they eat. 

By replacing men 

with machinery 

business men 

increase 

the producing power 

and decrease 

the consuming power. 

Sit-Downers 

In putting more machines 

into factories 

business men 

have given up their job 

of providing jobs. 

The job providers 

have to admit 

that they sit down 

on their job 

of providing jobs. 

Because the job providers 

have sat down 

on their job 

of providing jobs, 

the Government . 

has taken up the job 

of providing jobs. 

But the Government 

can only rob Peter 

to pay Paul, 

and by doing so 

endanger its own credit. 




128 



FROM RICHELIEU TO HITLER 



100% Frenchman 

Cardinal Richelieu 

was a Cardinal 

of the Catholic Church 

and Prime Minister 

to a Catholic King. 

He ought to have been 

100% Catholic. 

He chose to be 

100% Frenchman. 

As a 100% Frenchman 

he wanted France stronger 

and Austria weaker. 

He wanted France 

to be the dictator 

of Continental Europe. 

Thirty Years' War 

It was during 

the Thirty Years' War. 

Northern Germany 

and Sweden 

were fighting 

against Austria 

and Southern Germany 

It was a civil war 

between Protestant Germany 

and Catholic Germany. 

To make France stronger 

and Austria weaker 

Cardinal Richelieu 

took the side 

of Protestant Germany 

and Sweden 

against Catholic Germany 

and Austria. 

Treaty of Westphalia 

Protestant Germany 

and Sweden 

won the war 

with the help of France. 

The Treaty of Westphalia, 

signed in 1648, 



gave to France 

part of Alsace. 

While France was united 

the Treaty of Westphalia 

kept Germany divided 

in 300 principalities. 

The acquisition 

of part of Alsace 

by France 

did not keep Alsace 

from remaining 

a bone of contention 

between France 

and Germany. 

Birth of Prussia 
While France was united 
and the King used to say, 
"I am the State," 
Germany was divided 
in 300 principalities. 
But Germany 
did not remain divided. 
Around 1700 
the Principality of 

Hohenzollern, the 
Margravate of 

Brandenburg 
and the Dukedom of Prussia 
formed a new kingdom which 
they called Prussia. Eager to 
receive recognition, the new 
kingdom took the side of 
England and Austria 
against Spain and France 
in the War of Spanish 
Succession. It was in 
this war that England 
got Gibraltar. 

Seven Years' War 
During the Seven Years' War, 
known in America 

129 



as the French and Indian War, 

Prussia was again 

on the side of England. 

While during 

the Thirty Years' War 

France was fighting 

against Austria, 

during the Seven Years' War 

France was fighting 

on the side of Austria. 

In the war game 

friends of today 

become the enemies 

of tomorrow 

and enemies of today 

become the friends 

of tomorrow. 

During this war 

Austria lost prestige 

and France 

lost Canada 

as well as 

colonies in India. 

Place in the Sun 

In the meantime 

France as well as Austria 

was becoming weaker 

and England 

as well as Prussia 

was becoming stronger. 

The war against Denmark 

and the war against France 

made Prussia stronger, 

and in 1871 

the King of Prussia 

was made German Emperor 

at Versailles. 

The new German Empire 

became envious 

of French and English 

colonial empires 

and started to cry 

for a place in the sun. 

But the place in the sun 

had been taken 



by France and England, 
who were bragging about 
the fact that the sun never 
set on their domains. 

United Germany 
The Great War was an 
attempt on the part of 
Germany to get a place in 
the sun. But Germany 
failed to get its place in 
the sun, while France and 
England succeeded in 
getting a bigger place in 
the sun. The Germans 
still think that they 
should have a bigger and 
better place in the sun. 
They have annexed the 
Austrian Germans and 
the Sudeten Germans ori 
the ground that it is for 
the good of the Austrian 
Germans and the Sudeten 
Germans. 

Nations and Notions 
The French are united, 
the English are united, the 
Italians are united, the 
Russians are united, the 
Germans are united but 
the world is still divided. 
The League of Nations is 
a failure because nations 
have wrong notions. Right 
notions must be spread 
among nations before we 
can have a genuine 
League of Nations. 



130 



Germany and Italy are 
now on the level of 
France and England. 
Germany and Italy 



cannot be expected to be 
on the level when France 
and England are not on 
the level. 



NON-CATHOLIC CATHOLICS 



Apologetic Catholics 

Some Catholics 

like to apologize 

for being Catholics. 

Since Catholicism 

is the truth, 

it is foolish 

to apologize 

for being Catholics. 

Since. Catholicism 

is the truth, 

then Catholics 

ought to let non-Catholics 

apologize 

for not being Catholics. 

To let non-Catholics 

apologize 

for not being Catholics 

is good apologetics. 

To apologize 

for being Catholics 

is bad apologetics. 

Led by the Nose 

Non-Catholics say 

that Catholics 

are led by the nose 

by the clergy. 

Real Catholics 

are not led by the nose 

by the clergy. 

Real Catholics 

follow their consciences. 

1 must admit 

that some Catholics 

are led by the nose. 

These Catholics 

who are led by the nose 

are not led by the nose 



by the clergy. 

They are led by the nose 

by non-Catholics. 

These Catholics 

who allow themselves 

to be led by the nose 

by non-Catholics 

ought to be called 

non-Catholic Catholics. 

A Wrong Way 

Non-Catholic Catholics 

tell us 

that one cannot lead 

a Catholic life 

in a Protestant country. 

The protestation 

of Protestants 

is not a protestation 

against the Catholicism 

of non-Catholic Catholics. 

It is a protestation 

against the lack 

of Catholicism 

of non-Catholic Catholics. 

Non-Catholic Catholics 

are giving to Protestants 

a wrong view 

of Catholicism. 

To give to Protestants 

a wrong view 

of Catholicism 

is not the right way 

to make Catholics 

out of Protestants. 

Catholic Principles 

Protestants have 
principles but 
Catholics 



131 



have more principles 

than Protestants. 

But principles 

must be applied. 

To have principles 

and not to apply them 

is worse 

than not having any. 

Non-Catholic Catholics 

fail to bring 

Catholic principles 

to Protestants 

because 

they do not dare 

to exemplify 

those Catholic principles 

that Protestants 

do not have. 

Imitators 
Non-Catholic Catholics 



like to tell 

their Protestant friends, 

"we are just as good 

as you are." 

They ought to tell 

their Protestant friends, 

"we are just as bad 

as you are." 

Their Protestant friends 

ought to tell 

the non-Catholic Catholics, 

"you are not 

just as bad 

as we are; 

you are much worse 

than we are 

for you are 

our imitators, 

you are not yourselves." 



NOT LIBERALS BUT RADICALS 



The Word Liberal 

The word liberal is 
used in Europe in a 
different way from the 
way it is used in 
America. In Europe a 
liberal is a man who 
believes in liberty 
without knowing what 
to do with it. Harold 
Laski accuses liberals 
of having used their 
intelligence without 
knowing what to do 
with it. 

Radicals 

Liberals are too 
liberal to be 
radicals. To be a 
radical 



is to go to the roots. Liberals 
don't go to the roots; they 
only 

scratch the surface. The 
only way to go to the roots 
is to bring religion into 
education, into politics, into 
business. To bring religion 
into the profane is the best 
way to take profanity out of 
the profane. To take 
profanity out of the profane 
is to bring sanity into the 
profane. Because we aim to 
do just that we like to be 
called radicals. 



132 



TWO LETTERS FROM PETER 



Portland, Ore. Jan. 19, 
1939 

Dear Dorothy: 
I just received your letter 
and read the January issue 
of the CATHOLIC WORKER I 
had written a letter when I 
arrived in Seattle which I 
failed to send to you. I am 
sending it to you with a 
fifty-dollar check. I am 
now leaving for San 
Francisco and will write to 
you when I arrive there. 
Your fellow worker in 
Christ, 

PETER MAURIN. 

Seattle, Wash. Dec. 28, 
1938 

Dear Dorothy: 

I arrived in Seattle safe 
and sound except for a 
couple bruises on the chin. 
We were driving back to 
Spokane from the Jesuit 
House of Studies. Father 
Robinson, dean of Gonzaga 
College, 
was the driver. 
I was sitting in the back 
with a Jesuit scholastic. 
Our conversation 
was so interesting 
for Father Robinson 
that he forgot to stop 
at a red light 
and ran into the middle 
of a city bus. 



The head of his car 

was smashed. 

His nose was cut, 

while his glasses, 

which he was wearing, 

were not broken. 

The Jesuit scholastic 

had a cut 

above the left eye. 

I was hurt 

by bumping my chin 

against the front seat. 

The schools being closed, 

I was only able 

to talk to the scholastics 

in the House of Studies. 

It was Bishop White 

who phoned Father Robinson 

about me being in town. 

I am coming back to Spokane 

the 9, 10, 11 January. 

I spent Christmas in Butte 

with Elias Seaman. 

With a Catholic Hindu 

student in the School of Mines 

we went to midnight Mass 

at a Croatian Church. 

This Croatian pastor 

is a great friend 

of the Catholic Worker. 

I am sending you 

a fifty-dollar check. 

to help pay the debts. 

While in St. Paul 

I paid fifty-two dollars 

and forty cents 

for a 5,569-mile trip. 

That trip takes me 

from St. Paul to Seattle, 

then to Los Angeles, 

then to Denver, 

then to Omaha, 

then to St. Paul. 



133 



I can stop 

anywhere I want 

and it is good 

for 150 days. 

They intend 

to start a Catholic Worker 

group 
in Minneapolis. It is also 
a question of a farming 
commune. Father Le 
Beau at St. Thomas 
College, Father Loosen 
at St, Mary's Hospital, 
Sister Helen Angelica at 
St. Joseph's Hospital are 
great boosters of the 
Catholic Worker. Dr. 
John Giesen is actively 
connected with a 
Mexican center. Dr. 
Bauer, 

a German sociologist, is 
now at St. Thomas and is 
eager to co-operate 



with the Catholic Worker. 
Before leaving St. Paul 
I made a short trip 
to Eau Claire 
and La Crosse. 
The pastor of Eau Claire 
agrees with us: 
the youth needs a cause. 
A Y. M. C. A. secretary 
in La Crosse 

is very much in sympathy 
with the idea 
of an Unpopular Front 
on Personalist Democracy. 
I found that the reaction 
to the Catholic Worker 
propaganda is very 
favorable. There was very 
little talk either about 
Franco or Father Coughlin. I 
wish you all a Happy New 
Year. 

Yours in Christ the Worker, 
PETER MAURTN. 



LOOKING BACKWARD 



In New England 

There are three kinds of 
people 

in New England: 

the foreigners, 

the Irish 

and the Yankees. 

The foreigners of New Eng- 
land 

have given up 

their own traditions 

to keep up 

with the Irish. 

The Irish of New England 

have given up 

their own scholarship 

to keep up 

134 



with the Yankees. 

The Yankees of New 

England 

have given up 

their New England 

conscience to keep up 

with the utilitarian, 

futilitarian 

political economists of the 

Manchester School of 

political economy. So what 

can you expect from New 

England? 

In Louisiana 
Waldo Frank says 
that America 
is a lost continent 
and that to rediscover itself 



America must go back 
to Mediterranean thought. 
Mediterranean thought 
was brought to Louisiana 
by the founders of Louisiana, 
but the people of Louisiana 
have turned over the 
State of Louisiana 
to greedy corporations. 
The Catholic people 
of the State of Louisiana 
had to have 
a Baptist lawyer 
by the name of Huey Long 
to save them 
from the grip 
that greedy corporations 
had on the Catholic people 
of the State of Louisiana. 

In Texas 
Spanish Franciscans 
went to Texas 
when Texas was part, 
of Old Mexico. 
Spanish Franciscans 
taught the Indians 
to build churches, 
to build schools, 
to build mission-storehouses. 
The ruins of those churches, 
the ruins of those schools, 
the ruins of those mission- 
storehouses 
can still be seen 
in the State of Texas. 
But the Catholic people 
of Texas 

are not interested 
in the ideology 
of the Spanish Franciscans. 
They are interested 
in keeping up 
with the Yankees. 

In California 



The Yankees were 



to make wage-slaves 

out of the Indians. 

The Yankees used to say: 

"A good Indian 

is a dead Indian." 

By combining cult, 

that is to say liturgy, 

with culture, 

that is to say literature, 

with cultivation, 

that is to say agriculture, 

the Spanish Franciscans 

who went to California 

succeeded in making willing 
workers 

out of the Indians. 

The Catholics of California 

have not found the way 

to do for the Catholic un- 
employed 

what the Spanish Fran- 
ciscans 

did for the Indians. 

In the meantime 

the people of California 

are looking for a panacea 

at the expense 

of the taxpayers. 

Going to the Right 

Frey of the A. F. of L. 
says that the Communist 

Party 
is pushing Roosevelt to 
the left. The A. F. of L. 
does not know enough to 
push Roosevelt to the 
right. Going to the left is 
going towards the 
Industrial Socialism of 
Stalin. 

Going to the right is 
going towards 

135 



not able 



the Rural Communism of the 
Franciscan Founders who 
founded Rural Communes 



in what are now the 
State of Texas, the State 
of New Mexico, the 
State of California. 



FIRING THE BOSS 



The C. I. O. 
and the A. F. ofL. 
help the worker 
fight the boss. But 
the worker must 
have a boss before 
the C. I. O. and the 
A. F. of L. can be 
of help to the 
worker in fighting 
a boss. If it is a 
good thing to be a 
boss, 



it is a good thing to 
help the worker to be 
his own boss. If it is a 
bad thing to exploit the 
worker, it is a good 
thing to help the 
worker exploit himself. 
"Fire the boss and be 
your own boss" is a 
good slogan for the 
worker. 




136 



BOOK 5 



LET'S 

KEEP 

THE 

JEWS FOR 

CHRIST'S 

SAKE 



A Mystery 

The Jews 

are a mystery 

to themselves. 

They are not a nation, 
although the Zionists try 
to build up one in 
Palestine. They are not a 
race, for they have 
intermarried ' with many 
other races. They are not a 
religion, since their belief 
calls for one Temple and 
the Jewish Temple has not 
been in existence for 
nearly 2,000 years. 

In Spain 

St. Vincent Ferrer, 
a Spanish Dominican, 
succeeded in converting 

25,000 Jews. 

When the Spaniards 

decided 

to drive the Moors out 

they also decided 

to drive the Jews out. 

St. Vincent Ferrer 

tried to convert the Jews; 
he did not start a crusade 
to drive them out. 
Driven out of Spain, 
the Jews found a refuge in 



Salonika, which was 
then under the 
Turkish flag. 
Spanish is still 
spoken by Jewish 
workmen in 
Salonika, 

In the Papal 
States 

The Popes never 

did 

start a crusade ~ 

to drive the Jews 

out of the Papal 

States. 

Jews have lived in 

Rome 
and the adjoining territory 

since the Roman 

Empire. 

The Roman 

Empire 

protected the 

Jews 

living under its 

rule, 

and so did the 

Popes 

in the Papal 

States. 

The Jews 

themselves 

admit the fairness 

with which they were treated 

in the Papal States. 

In the Shadow of 
the Cross 

While the 

Spaniards 

refused to keep the 

Jews 

the Popes consented 

to keep the Jews. 

The Jews 

were the chosen 

people 

and they are still, 

for God does not 

change. 



1 
3 
9 



Because the Jews 

did not recognize Christ 

is not a good reason 

for acting towards them 

in a non-Christian manner. 

The presence of the Jews 

all over the world 

is a reminder to the world 

of the coming of Christ. 

The Jews who refused 

to accept the Cross 

find their best protection 

in the shadow 

of the Cross. 

In Germany 

Under the shadow of the 
Cross 

the Jews were protected; 

under the Swastika 

they are persecuted. 

The Cross 

stands for one thing, 

the Swastika 

for another thing. 

The Cross stands 

for race equality; 

the Swastika stands 

for race superiority. 

The Catholic Church 

stands for human brother- 
hood, 

the Nazi regime 

stands for the expansion 

of one race 

at the expense 

of the other races. 

In America 

The English Puritans 



found a refuge 

in America. 

The French Huguenots 

found a refuge 

in America. 

The Irish Catholics 

found a refuge 

in America. 

The German Liberals 

found a refuge 

in America. 

America 

is big enough 

to find a refuge 

for persecuted Jews 

as well as 

persecuted Christians. 

In Palestine 

America can produce more than it 
can consume. What America needs is 
more consumers. More Jews in 
America means more consumers for 
America. It is said that the Jews flock 
to the cities and become middle men, 
and that there are too many middle 
men in America. But in Palestine the 
Jews are building both cities and 
country. What the Jews are doing in 
Palestine they can do also in 
America. 



140 



THE EUROPEAN MESS 



Safe for Dictators 

America 

went into the last war to 
make the world safe for 
democracy. But England 
was not interested in 
helping America to make 
the world safe for 
democracy. Because 
England as well as France 
was not interested in 
Wilson's 14 points the 
world is in the process of 
being made safe for 
dictators. Because the 
Treaty of 

Versailles was not 
based on Wilson's 14 
points it did not make for 
peace; it made for war. 

League of Nations 

To please Wilson 

the Allies established 

the League of Nations. 

But the League of Nations 

failed to impart notions 

to the nations 

of the League of Nations. 

In spite of the League of Na- 
tions 

Japan went to Manchuria 

as well as China. 

In spite of the League of Na- 
tions 
Italy went to Ethiopia as 

well as Albania. 



In spite of the League of Na- 
tions 
Poland took Vilna 
from Lithuania. 

German Extension 

The Treaty of 
Versailles disarmed 
Germany, but Germany 
refused to stay disarmed. 
And the League of Nations 
was powerless to keep 
Germany from rearming. 
Once rearmed, Germany 
started to revise the Treaty of 
Versailles, by going to 
Austria as well as Czecho- 
slovakia. And now Germany 
is in Poland. 

Nations and the Pope 

The English believe in 
colonial expansion. The 
French believe in colonial 
expansion. The Germans 
believe in Continental 
expansion. The Pope does 
not believe in colonial 
expansion or Continental 
expansion. Nations thought 
that they could do without 
the Pope. Nations need right 
notions and the Pope has the 
right notions that nations 
are in need of. 



141 



Prayer for Peace 

By Pope Benedict XV 
Dismayed 

by the horrors of war 
which bring ruin 
to people and nations, 
we turn, O Jesus, 
to Thy most loving Heart, to 
our last hope. O King of 
Peace, we humbly implore 
the peace for which we long. 
From Thy Sacred Heart 
Thou didst send forth 



over the world 

divine charity 

so that discord might end 

and love alone 

reign among men. 

Do Thou inspire 

rulers and people 

with counsels of meekness, 

do Thou heal the discords 

that tear nations asunder. 

Some trust in chariots, 

and some in horses, 

but we will call 

upon the name 

of the Lord our God. 




PAX 



Pax Geneva 

To please Wilson the 
Allies established the 
League of Nations. But 
the League of Nations 
failed to impart notions 
to the nations of the 
League of Nations. In 
spite of the League of 

Nations, 
Japan went to Manchuria 
as well as China. In spite 
of the League of 

Nations, 
Italy went to Ethiopia 
as well as Albania. 



In spite of the League of 

Nations, 
Poland took Vilna 
from Lithuania. 

Pax Romana 
Mussolini never did like 
the law and order that the 
League of Nations tried to 
enforce. Mussolini 
went to the Roman Empire 
for a different concept of 
law and order. Mussolini's 
policy has been to 
substitute 



142 



the Pax Homana of the 
Roman Empire for the Pax 
Geneva of the League of 
Nations. 

Pax Germania 

Germany contends 

that the Holy Roman Empire 

was the heir 

to the Roman Empire, 

and that the Germans 

were the rulers 

of the non-German people 

of the Holy Roman Empire 

Germany contends 

that the German race 

is more pure 

than the other races. 

Germany contends 

that a pure race 

must increase 

and occupy territory 

now occupied 

by mongrel races. 

Germany contends 

th|at enforced unanimity 

is the way to bring about 

national unity. 

Pax Muscova 

Russia contends 

that the Russian Empire 

was the heir 

to the Byzantine Empire. 

Russia contends 

that Russian Sovietism 

is the instrument 

for the realization 

of the Marxist dream. 

While the Mahometans 

tried to force on the world 

their brand of Theism, 

Soviet Russia 

tries to force on the world 

its brand of Atheism. 



Pax Britannica 

England asks: 

"Is not Pax Britannica 

better than Pax Geneva, 

better than Pax Romana, 

better than Pax Germania, 

better than Pax Muscova?" 

But Gandhi says: 

"England is not in India 

for the sake of India, 

but for the sake of England." 

De Valera says: 

"What England 

did to Ireland 

is not to the credit 

of Pax Britannica." 

The United States 

is not convinced 

that the way to bring about 

the United States of the 

World 
is by joining the British 
Commonwealth. 

Pax Hibernia 

The world is cursed 

with imperialists. 

What the world needs 

is missionaries, 

not imperialists. 

When the Irish 

were scholars 

they were missionaries; 

they were not 

imperialists. 

When the Irish 

were missionaries 

they went all over Europe, 

starting with England. 

They had 

not swords or guns, 

but knowledge and zeal. 

Through words and deeds 

they taught people 

to rule themselves. 



143 



Pax Vaticana 

What the Irish scholars 

taught is what the 
Christian 

Fathers taught. What the 
Christian Fathers 

taught is what the Holy 
Father 

teaches. 
The Holy Father teaches 
the supremacy of the 
spiritual over the 
material. 



During the first world war 
a Protestant minister 
suggested that the warring 

nations 
accept the Pope as the 
arbiter. The appeal for 
peace of Benedict XV 
was ignored in the last 
war. Why not learn 
from the mistakes of 
the last war? 



PERSONALIST DEMOCRACY 



Bourgeois Democracy 

The economic royalists who 
believe in property without 
responsibility do not have 
the right concept of liberty. 
They use liberty to become, 
rugged individualists. 
They don't use liberty to 
become gentlemen who try 
to be gentle. In a letter 
addressed to French 
Catholics Cardinal Pacelli, 
now Pius XII, reminded 
them that "liberty does not 
grant license to act against 
the moral law, nor should 
social liberties infringe 
upon the civil order and the 
common good." 

Arithmocracy 

People used to say: 

144 



"The king can do no wrong." 

But kings can do wrong, 

and very often 

they did wrong. 

The kings that did wrong 

were the kings 

that had lost the sense 

of kingship. 

Some seem to think 

that the majority 

can do no wrong. 

But the majority 

can do wrong 

and it often does wrong 

because the majority 

has not yet acquired 

what makes people kind 

to mankind. 

Poetry and Dictatorship 

Padraic Colum says: 

"In our time 

a political philosophy 

has arisen 

that tends to contradict 

what poets 

among all races, 

at all times, 



in all places 

have felt 

and shown. 

This philosophy insists 

that the individual 

has no dignity 

in himself, 

but only 

through his association 

with a race, 

a State, 

or a class. 

More and more 

it limits 

freedom of choice." 

Liberty or Discipline 
Fascist countries discard 
liberty for the sake of 
discipline. The greatness 
of a nation is the 
greatness of people's 
character. Some people 
have good character. 
Some people have bad 
character. Some people 
have no character; they 
are yes-men. 



Through the power of 
thought and example 
people of good character 
transform the people of 
bad character. 

Liberty or Security 
Patrick Henry said: "Give 
me liberty or give me 
death." Patrick Henry 
wanted the power to think, 
the power to choose, the 
power to act. Many people 
today are willing to give 
up liberty for the sake of 
economic security. When 
everybody looks for 
economic security nobody 
gets it. But when nobody 
looks for economic security 
and uses liberty trying to 
be what he wants , 

the other fellow to be then 
everybody gets economic 
security. 



THE STUFF AND THE PUSH 



I was in a cafeteria in 
Greenwich Village. Two 
young fellows were 
talking. One said to the 
other, "You father has the 
stuff, but he hasn't the 
push." And the other said: 
"And I have the push, but 
not the stuff." 



The father had the stuff, 

but he could not push it, 

and the son had the push, 

but he had nothing to push. 

Catholic journalists 

have the stuff, 

but do not have the push, 

and non-Catholic journalists 

have the push, 

but do not have the stuff. 



145 



WHY PICK ON THE JEWS? 



Treaty of Versailles 

Hitler likes 

to pick on the Jews. 

The sufferings of Germany 

were the product 

of the Treaty of Versailles. 

The Jews cannot be blamed 

for the Treaty of Versailles. 

We must place the blame 

for the Treaty of Versailles 

on the English Machiavellian 

by the name of Lloyd George 

and on the French 

Machiavellian by the name 
of Clemenceau. 

Bourgeois Capitalism 

In a book entitled 
"Judaism and Capitalism," 
Werner Sombart blames the 
Jews for the development of 
bourgeois capitalism. Adam 
Smith and Ricardo, the 
theoreticians of bourgeois 
capitalism, were not Jews. 
The fostering of bourgeois 
capitalism in modern 
Germany is due to Bismarck. 
To Kaiser William is also due 
the fostering of bourgeois 
capitalism in modern 
Germany. 

Turning Sharp Corners 
Business men say that 
bourgeois capitalism is all 
right 

and that what is wrong in 
bourgeois capitalism are the 
abuses. 



Rotarians have tried 

without much success 

to correct the abuses 

of bourgeois capitalism. 

The turning of sharp corners 

by business men 

must be laid to the door 

of Christians 

as well as Jews. 

The assertion 

that religion 

has nothing to do 

with business 

is the assertion 

of Christians 

as well as Jews. 

Modern Liberals 

The separation 

of the spiritual 

from the material 

was fostered 

by modern liberals. 

Modern liberals 

were so broad-minded 

that they did not know enough 

to make up their minds. 

Modern liberals 

were the defenders 

of bourgeois capitalism 

before becoming 

the fellow-travelers 

of Bolshevist Socialism. 

Jews can be found 

among bourgeois capitalists, 

among Bolshevist Socialists, 

and among disillusioned 

fellow-travelers. 

Racialism 
Having given up Jewish 
Orthodoxy some Jews tried 
to foster (Jewish racialism. 



146 



The Jews were a chosen 
people but they were 
never a superior race. 
The Nordics were never 
a chosen people or a 
superior race. And it is 
not because some Jews 
became facial minded 
that other people should 
be racial minded Racial- 
minded Jews are a 
nuisance and so are 
racial-minded Nordics. 
Promised Land 

When the Jews were 
themselves they taught 
the doctrine of a 
personal God 



as well as 

social ethics. 

Bourgeois capitalists 

as well as 

Bolshevist Socialists 

need the belief in a personal 

God 
as well as sound social ethics. 
Hitler needs to read the Old 
Testament and the New 
Testament if he wants to lead 
men 

into the Promised Land 
where people do no longer 
try to cut each other's 
throats and where the lion 
comes to lie down with the 
lamb. 



TURNING TO THE CHURCH 



When I was in St. Louis I 
met a Maryknoll Father 
who had recently returned 
to the United States after 
eight years in China as a 
Maryknoll Missionary. He 
is pleased to see that non- 
Catholics in the United 
States are much more 
curious about the Catholic 
Church than they were 
before he left for China ten 
years ago. 



While modern nations 

give the sad spectacle 

of going back on their word, 

intelligent people 

are turning to the Church 

as the one moral security 

left in the world. 

Father McSorley, 

great friend of 

the Catholic Worker, 

has always favored 

the opening of small offices 

where non-Catholics 

curious about the Church 

could receive information. 



147 



JUDAISM AND CATHOLICISM 



Jacques Maritain 

General Franco's 

brother-in-law 

accuses Maritain 

of being a converted Jew. 

Maritain says 

that he is a convert, 

but not 

a converted Jew. 

He adds 

that if he were 

he would not be 

ashamed of it. 

He would, on the contrary, 

be proud, 

as his wife is proud, 

of coming from a people 

who gave the Blessed Mother 

to the world. 

Mrs. Maritain 
Mrs. Maritain 
is a convert 
from Judaism. 
Mrs. Maritain 
thinks that Catholicism 
is Judaism plus. 
In becoming Catholic 
Mrs. Maritain thinks 
that she has kept 
her Judaism 
and added to it 
what Catholicism has 
that Judaism 
does not have. 
Mrs. Maritain thinks 
that she is now 

100% Jewish. 

Dr. Herbert Ratner 
Dr. Herbert Ratner, 

of the University of 
Chicago, became a Catholic 
two years ago. 

148 



His father, a Russian Jew, 

gave him the name Herbert 

in the hope 

that he would keep up 

with Herbert Spencer. 

He tried to get 

what modern liberals, 

including Herbert Spencer, 

had to offer. 

He was not satisfied 

with what modern liberals 

had to offer. 

He now says: 

"We were not 

attracted to the Church 

by Catholics; 

we were pushed 

into the Church 

by non-Catholics 

who did not have the stuff." 

Father Arthur Klyber 

Father Arthur Klyber, 

a Redemptorist, 

was born on the East Side. 

After a few years 

in the Navy 

he became a Catholic 

in Los Angeles. 

The good example 

of Catholics 

from Los Angeles 

brought Father Klyber, 

an East Side Jew, 

into the Church. 

The Catholic friends 

were always friendly 

to Klyber, the Jew, 

because they did not allow 

the poison of anti-Semitism 

to poison 

their human relations. 

As a result 



Father Klyber is now a 
Catholic priest. 

Six Other Priests Six 
other converts from 
Judaism are now Catholic 
priests in the United States. 
If they had remained Jews 
they might have become 
Rabbis. As Rabbis, they 
would be commenting 



on the message 

of the Jewish Prophets. 

As priests, 

they announce 

the good news 

that the Messiah 

announced by the Prophets 

died on Calvary. 

As priests of Christ 

they again offer 

Christ's sacrifice 

on the altars 

of the Catholic Church. 



PROSTITUTION 



Prostitution of Marriage 

Birth control 

is not self-control. 

What is not self-control 

is self-indulgence. 

What is self-indulgence 

is prostitution of functions. 

Prostitution in marriage 

is prostitution of marriage. 

Prostitution of marriage 

is prostitution plus hypocrisy. 

Prostitution of Education 

To educate 

is to elevate. 

To elevate 

is to raise. 

To raise wheat 

on a piece of land 

is to enable 

that piece of land 

to produce wheat 

instead of weeds. 

To raise men 

from the animal state 

to the cultural state 

is to educate men. 

The teaching of facts 

without understanding 



is a prostitution of 
education. 

Prostitution of the Press 

Modern newspapermen 

try to give people 

what they want. 

Newspapermen 

ought to give people 

what they need. 

To give people 

what they want 

but should not have 

is to pander. 

To give people 

what they need, 

or in other terms, 

to make them want 

what they ought to want, 

is to foster. 

To pander 

to the bad in men 

is to make men 

inhuman to men. 

To foster the good in men 

is to make men 

human to men. 

Prostitution of Politics 

The Republicans say: 



149 



"Let's turn the rascals out." 

The Democrats say: 

"Let's turn the rascals out." 

The Republicans 

call the Democrats 

rascals. 

The Democrats 

call the Republicans 

rascals. 

For the Republicans 

as well as 

for the Democrats 

politics 

is just profitable business. 

By making a business 

out of politics 

politicians 

have prostituted 

the noble calling 

of politics. 

Prostitution of Property 

All the land 

belongs to God. 

God wants us 

to be our brother's keeper. 

Our superfluous goods 

must be used 

to relieve the needs 

of our brother. 

What we do for our brother 

for Christ's sake 

is what we carry with us 

when we die. 

This is what the poor are for, 

to A give to the rich 

the occasion to do good 

for Christ's sake. 

To use property 

to acquire more property 

is not the proper, use 

of property, 

It is a prostitution 

of property. 

150 



Prostitution of the Theatre 

What 'applies to the Press 

applies also 

to the Theatre. 

In the Middle Ages 

the Theatre 

was considered 

as an efficient way 

of preaching. 

They liked to produce 

Mystery Plays. 

They aimed to preach 

and not to pander. 

Pandering to the crowd 

has brought the degradation 

of the theatre. 

The Theatre started 

in the Church. 

The Theatre has ended 

in the gutter. 

Prostitution of Art 

In the Middle Ages 

the artists 

were not called artists, 

they were called artisans. 

When the artists 

were artisans 

they had the community 

spirit. They had the 
community 

spirit 
because they believed in the 
doctrine of the Common 
Good. Now that the artists 
do no longer believe in the 
doctrine of the Common 
Good they sell their work 
to art speculators. As Eric 
Gill says, "they have 
become the lap-dogs of the 
bourgeoisie.' 




PARENTHOOD ASSOCIA TION 



BIRTH CONTROL 



Gina Lombroso 

In a book entitled 

"The Soul of Woman," 

Gina Lombroso says 

that the basis of the home 

is the love of the woman 

for the man. 

She adds that no woman 

can 1 love a man 

whom she cannot admire. 

The woman's scale of values 

is higher and lower 

than man's scale of values. 

Because of that, 

no woman 

can admire a man 

who tries to induce her 

to practice birth control. 

She takes the man 

as a meal ticket. 

Heywood Broun 

Margaret Sanger believes 
in birth control. The 
Catholic Church does not 
believe in birth control. If 
Margaret Sanger 



is right 

then the Catholic Church 

is wrong. 

Heywood Broun 

thought a long time 

about that question. 

He finally 

came to the conclusion 

that the Catholic Church 

is right 

and that Margaret Sanger 

is wrong. 

And he entered 

the Catholic Church. 

Dr. Herbert Ratner 

Dr. Herbert Ratner 

is a convert 

from Judaism. 

The study of sex 

brought Dr. Herbert Ratner 

into the Catholic Church. 

As a scientist 

and as a philosopher 

he maintains 

that the Catholic Church 

is foolproof 

in the matter of sex. 

He intends 



151 



to teach biology 
and to lecture on 
marriage. 

Prostitution Plus 

Birth control is not 
self-control. What is 
not self-control is self- 
indulgence. What is 
self-indulgence is 
prostitution 



of functions. 
Prostitution in marriage 
is prostitution of 
marriage. Prostitution 
of marriage is 
prostitution legalized. 
Prostitution legalized is 
prostitution plus 
hypocrisy. 



KARL'S MARXISM VERSUS 
MY COMMUNISM 



A Communist Society 

A Communist society 

is a society 

in which everyone works 

according to his ability 

and gets 

according to his needs. 

Such a society 

is not found 

in Soviet Russia. 

Such a society 

is found 

in Catholic monasteries. 

That is why 

Father Vincent McNabb, 

an English Dominican, 

told John Strachey, 

"I am a Communist, 

you are only 

an amateur. " 

I Agree 

I agree 

with seven Bishops 

that the criticism 

of bourgeois capitalism 

by the Communist Party 

is a sound criticism. 

I agree 

With seven Bishops 



that the main social aim 

of the Communist Party, 

which is 

"to create a society 

where everyone works 

according to his ability 

and gets 

according to his needs" 

is a sound social aim. 

I agree 

with seven Bishops 

that the means used 

by the Communist Party 

are not sound. 

They are not right means, 

they are wrong means. 

The means used 

by the Communist Party 

are class struggle 

and proletarian dictatorship. 

Means and Ends 

It is not true that the 
end justifies .the means. 
Good ends require right 
means. To use wrong 
means to achieve good 
ends is to forget the 
means 



for the sake of the ends. 

Class struggle 

and proletarian dictatorship 

are not the means 

to bring about 

a Communist society. 

The means to bring about 

a Communist society 

are Christian charity 

and voluntary poverty. 

We can create 

a new society 

within the shell of the old 

with the philosophy of the 
new, 

which is not a new philosophy 

but a very old philosophy, 

a philosophy so old 

that it looks like new. 

Curry Russian Favor 

"Our motives 

were not based on principles. 

They were not concerned 

with the interests 

of the labor movement 

as a whole. 

We did not want 

to be found in opposition 

to the Russian leaders 

even if we believed 

that they were wrong, 

because the Russians 

never tolerated opposition. 

We had to curry favor 

with the Russians 

in order to maintain 

our leadership 

of the American Party. 

The Russian whip 

could drive us out 

just as quickly 

as the Russian pat on the back 

had put us in." 

— Benjamin Gitlow in "I Con- 
less." 



Victims of a False Theory 

"These men were victims 

of a false theory 

according to which 

no matter what they did 

Socialism 

would ultimately come. 

The result 

was a readiness 

to use any means at hand, 

an intellectual irresponsibility 

in situations 

where genuine alternatives 

were present. 

It was a deadening 

of moral sensibilities. 

The be-all 

and end-all of life 

was to stay 

on the locomotive 

of the revolution 

as it speeds 

towards Inferno. 

They were confident 

in the belief 

that a mystical, 

diabolical necessity 

was guiding it 

to a paradise on earth." 

— Sidney Hook, reviewing "I 

Confess, " in Neiv York 

Tribune. 

They Were Wrong 

"If we liberals were right on 
certain single aspects of the. 
Russian Revolution, we were 
wrong, disgracefully wrong, 
on the question as a whole. 
We were wrong because in 
our enthusiasm over Russia's 
liberation from the Tsar, our 
hope 



153 



for the further liberation 

of the Russian people 

from economic 

as well as 

political serfdom 

and our vision of a new world 

springing from the womb 

of the Russian experiment, 

we permitted ourselves 

to condone wrongs 

that we knew to be wrongs. 

We consented 

to violations of principle 

that we knew to be fatal 

to the moral integrity 

of mankind. 

— John Haynes Holmes. 

Christian Charity 

At the beginning of 
Christianity 



the hungry were fed, the 
naked were clothed, the 
homeless were sheltered, the 
ignorant were instructed at a 
personal sacrifice. And the 
pagans used to say about the 
Christians, "See how they 
love one 

another." 
Father Arthur Ryan 
used to call that period 
of history the period 
of Christian Communism. 
The pagans do no longer say 
about the Christians, "See 
how they love one 

another," 
but say, 

"See how they pass the buck 
to social agencies." 



THE SIXTH COLUMN 



Roman Law 

In a book entitled: "A 
Guildsman's 

Interpretation of History," 
Arthur Penty has much to 
say about the revival of 
Roman Law. To the 
revival of Roman Law 
must be attributed the 
historical disputes 
between Kings and Popes. 
Jacques Maritain told us 
that Machiavellism is the 
modern heresy. By 
refusing to mind the 
Popes the Kings allowed 
Machiavellism 



to become 

their guiding principle. 

"Divide to rule" 

is their slogan. 

Minding the Pope 
Voltaire used to say: "If 
God did not exist He 
would have to be 
invented." If the Pope did 
not exist he would have 
to be invented. Because 
they refuse to mind the 
Pope modern nations are 
now busy cutting their 
own throats, In time of 
peace modern nations 



154 



prepare for war. In time of 
war modern nations do not 
find time to prepare for 
peace. If modern nations 
listened to the Pope when he 
talks about peace they would 
not have to worry about 
being ready for the next 
war. 

We Catholics Believe 

We Catholics believe 
what Dualist Humanists 

believe, that there is good 
and bad in men and that 
men ought to express the 
good to get rid of the bad. 
We Catholics believe what 
Orthodox Jews and Quakers 
believe: the Fatherhood of 
God and the Brotherhood of 
Men. We Catholics believe 



what Fundamentalists 

believe: Virgin Birth and 
Redemption through 

Christ. 
We Catholics believe what 
the other believers 

believe plus 
beliefs 

that the other believers 
don't believe: Papal 
Supremacy and the 
Universal Church. 

The Catholic Worker Isms 

The Catholic Worker stands 
for co-operativism against 
capitalism. The Catholic 
Worker stands for 
personalism against 
Socialism. The Catholic 
Worker stands for 
leadership against 
dictatorship. The Catholic 
Worker stands for 
agrarianism against 
industrialism. The Catholic 
Worker stands for 
decentralism against 
totalitarianism. 




155 



FOR PROTECTION'S SAKE 



Protecting France 

The French believe 

in protection. 

To protect French citizens 

residing in Algeria 

they took the country 

from the natives. 

To protect Algeria 

they set up a protectorate 

over Tunisia 

with Bismarck's approval. 

To protect the Senegal 

they took Dahomey. 

To protect Indo-China 

they took the Tonkin. 

To protect Reunion 

they took Madagascar. 

They did not want the English 

to take Madagascar. 

When the English 

take something 

they are called grabbers 

by the French, 

who consider themselves 

good patriots. 

Protecting England 
Because they live on an island 
the English think that they 
must have the sea for their 
protection. To protect the 
sea they took Gibraltar from 
Spain and Canada from 
France. To protect the sea 
they established the Indian 
Empire. To protect the sea 
they went to Egypt as well 
as Sudan. To protect the sea 

156 



they went to Australia. 

To protect the sea 

they went to South Africa. 

The English 

drove the Spanish 

from the sea 

and now the Germans 

are doing their best 

or their worst 

to drive the English 

from the sea. 

Protecting Japan 

The French are doing their 
best to protect themselves 
and so do the English and so 
do the Japanese. To protect 
themselves they went to 
Korea. To protect themselves 
they went to Port Arthur. To 
protect themselves they went 
to Manchuria. To protect 
themselves they are in China. 
They are in China for the 
same reason that European 
nations went to China. 
Protecting Russia 
Russians used to think that 
they needed Constantinople 
for their protection. The 
Crimean War was fought by 
France and England to keep 
Russia out of Constantinople. 
The Russians think that in 
order to be able to protect 
themselves they must be 
allowed 



by the Baltic States to have 
naval bases on the Baltic Sea. 
The Russians say that they 
went to Poland, as well as 
Finland, not because they 
like war but because they like 
I to protect themselves. They 
have already the largest area 
of any nation and they still 
think that the world would be 
better off if they had more. 

Protecting Italy 

The Italians thought 

that in order to be protected 

they ought to have 

the Papal States. 

They have the Papal States 

and now they think 

that they will never 

be protected 

until the Mediterranean Sea 

is under Italian control. 

In the meantime 

they went to Lybia 

as well as to Ethiopia, 

without forgetting 

Albania. 

The Italians think 

that Italy 

will be better protected 

when the Italian flag, 

instead of the French flag, 

flies over Djibuti 

as well as Tunisia 

as well as Corsica. 

Protecting Germany 
The Germans also believe 
in protection. For their own 
protection 



they went to Austria. 

For their own protection 

they went to Czecho-Slovakia. 

For their own protection 

they went to Denmark 

as well as Norway. 

For their own protection 

they went to Holland 

as well as Belgium. 

For their own protection 

they are in France. 

For their own protection 

they intend 

to go to England. 

Where will they not go 

for their own protection? 

Protecting Humanity 

Each nation thinks 

that what it needs 

is to be protected 

against other nations. 

But the fear 

of other nations 

does not take the place 

of the fear of God. 

If we had 

the fear of God, 

we would have less fear 

of other nations. 

Humanity 

is not protected 

when people 

cut each other's throats 

for fear of each other. 

God may ask us, 

as He did of Cain: 

"Where is thy brother?" 

Will God be satisfied 

if we answer Him: 

"I am not 

my brother's keeper"? 

Is not the fear of God 

the best protection 

that humanity can have? 



157 



REVOLUTIONS 



English Revolution 

When Watt discovered 
the power of steam he 
brought into existence 
the factory system. It is 
in England that the 
factory system had its 
beginning. The factory 
system ran into 
competition with the 
crafts system. The 
factory system brought 
about the system of stock 
ownership. Stock 
ownership is absentee 
ownership. Absentee 
ownership is property 
without responsibility. 
Property without respon- 
sibility 

is now challenged by 
dictatorships. 

French Revolution 

French nobility 

had forgotten 

that "noblesse oblige. " 

French peasants 

were oppressed 

by French nobility, 

which had ceased 

to be noble. 

The French bourgeoisie 

sponsored the grievances 

of the peasants 

and made the Revolution 

not for the benefit 

of the peasants 

but for the benefit 

of the bourgeoisie. 

Bourgeois 

revolutionaries 

sent each other 



to the guillotine 

while talking about 

Liberty, Equality, 

Fraternity. 

Those who were not killed 

offered their services 

to Napoleon Bonaparte. 

Adolph Hitler 

is now keeping up 

with Napoleon Bonaparte. 

Russian 
Revolution Lenin said 
that the world cannot be 
half industrial and half 
agricultural. Because 
England had built up an 
Empire by giving up 
agrarianism and taking up 
industrialism, Lenin 
thought that Russia should 
also be industrialistic. 
Lenin thought that he 
could save time by 
building up State Socialism 
without passing through 
private capitalism and State 
capitalism. Lenin hoped 
that some day 
the State would wither 
away, but Stalin sees to it 
that the State does not 
wither away. 

American 
Revolution The 

American Revolution 
stands for the right of 
the 

individual 
to be the 
master 



158 



of his own destiny. 
The American Revolution 
stands for personalism and 
not for Socialism. The 
American Revolution 
stands for pluralism and 
not totalitarianism. "E 
Pluribus Unum" is an 
American slogan. America 
stands for freedom of 
speech, freedom of the 
press, freedom of worship. 
The Declaration of 
Independence, the 
American Constitution, 
including the Bill of Rights, 



are important 

American documents. 

The purpose of these 
documents 

is to protect the individual 

from majority rule. 

The founders of America 

did not believe 

that the majority 

could do no wrong, 

any more than a dictator. 

They believed 

in the right use of liberty; 

that is to say; 

the power to think straight, 

the power to choose intel- 
ligently, 

the power to act wisely. 



WRECKERS OF EUROPE 



Philip the Fair 

In the middle 

of the thirteenth century 

some universities 

gave up the exclusive teaching 

of Canon Law 

and started to teach 

Roman Law. 

Roman-Law-minded 
lawyers 

backed Philip the Fair in his 

disputes with Boniface VIII. 

The aim of Roman Law is to 

enable the rich men to live 

among poor men by teaching 

the rich men how to keep the 

poor men poor. 

The aim of Canon Law is to 

enable the good men to live 

among bad men by teaching 

the good men to carry their 

cross 



and not to double-cross. 
Machiavelli 

According to R. H. Tawney, 
high ethics 

were taught to people when 
the Canon Law was the Law 
of the Land. While Savonarola 
was trying to bring back the 
high ethics of the Canon Law 
Machiavelli 

in his book "The Prince" was 
trying to teach the rulers how 
to rule people by dividing 
them. "Divide to rule" has 
been the slogan of politicians 
since Machiavelli, with few 
exceptions. So today we say 
that politics is only politics. 

159 



Luther 

Christ established the Church 

to be the teacher 

of the human race. 

Luther told the people 

not to listen to the Church 

as the teacher 

established by Christ 

but to find from the Bible 

what Christ 

wants them to do. 

Since Luther 

people meet in churches 

to listen to somebody 

who gives them 

his personal interpretation 

of what is in the Bible 

while they profess to believe 

not in the preacher's 

interpretation but in 
their personal 
interpretation. In the 
meantime they are 
doing what the ruler 
wants. They refuse 
to listen to the teachings 
of the Church of Christ 
and yes the ruler. 

Richelieu 

Richelieu was a Cardinal 

of the Catholic Church. 

He should have been 

a 100% Catholic. 

He chose to be 

a 100% Frenchman. 

As a 100% Frenchman 

he could not stand 

to see Austria 

the dominating power 

in Europe. 

To make Austria weaker 

he sided 

with Protestant Germany 

160 



and Sweden 

against Catholic Germany 

and Austria. 

The Treaty of Westphalia 

kept Germany divided 

in more than 300 

principalities. 

Adam Smith 

Adam Smith 

expounded the theory 

that everything 

would be lovely 

if everybody took in 

each other's washing 

and got paid for it. 

England first 

and other nations afterward 

acted on that theory. 

The search for markets 

and raw materials 

is at the base 

of modern imperialism. 

And modern imperialism 

is at the base 

of modern wars. 

Napoleon 

The French nobility having 
become ignoble, the French 
bourgeoisie decided to get 
rid of the French nobility. 
Having got rid of the 
French nobility the French 
bourgeoisie split in two 
and brought about the 
French terror. Napoleon 
Bonaparte ended the 
French terror and started a 
war for the extermination 
of foreign nobility. 
Napoleonic rule ended at 
Waterloo 



and the Treaty of Vienna 
established a compromise 
between landed aristocracy 
and plutocratic bourgeoisie 

Hitler 

In the nineteenth century 
secularist educators spread 
the idea that the Nordic 
race is a superior race. 
What secularist educators 
used to believe. Hitler now 
believes. Hitler believes 



that inferior races 

ought to make room 

for superior races. 

In 1914 

the Allies claimed 

that their job was 

to make the world safe 

for democracy. 

Hitler claims 

that democracy 

is dangerous 

for the reason 

that under it 

the world is made safe 

for inferior races. 



EDUCATIONAL SECULARISM 



To Worship God 

Puritans came to America 

so they could worship God 

the way they wanted 

to worship God. 

Quakers came to America 

so they could worship God 

the way they wanted 

to worship God. 

Huguenots came to America 

so they could worship God 

the way they wanted 

to worship God. 

English Catholics 

came to America 

so they could worship God 

the way they wanted 

to worship God. 

In the Public Schools 
The founders of America 
agreed in this, that there is a 
God and that God wants to 
be worshipped. The 
founders of America did not 
agree about the way 



God wants 

to be worshipped. 

That there is a God 

and that God wants 

to be worshipped 

is no longer taught 

in the public schools 

of America. 

Religion 

is no longer taught 

in the public schools 

of America, 

but politics and business 

are still taught 

in the public schools 

of America. 

Secularism 

When religion 

has nothing to do 

with education, 

education is only 

information: 

plenty of facts 

but no understanding. 

When religion 

has nothing to do 

with politics, 



161 



politics is only 

factionalism: 

let's turn the rascals out 

so our good friends 

can get in. 

When religion 

has nothing to do 

with business 

business is only 

commercialism: 

let's get all we can 

while the getting is good. 
Hotbeds of Materialism 

The Marxists 

and the Chambers of Com- 
merce 



agree in this, 

that religion 

ought to be kept 

out of the public schools. 

And American Protestants 

keep silent 

about the secularism 

of the public schools. 

In the nineteenth century 

public schools 

were the hotbeds 

of bourgeois capitalism. 

In the twentieth century 

public schools 

are the hotbeds 

of Bolshevist Socialism. 



NOT JEWISH WEALTH 
BUT IRISH CULTURE 



Job or Mission 

By grabbing 

Jewish wealth 

the Christian Mobilizers 

hope to be able 

to give jobs 

to everybody. 

By grabbing 

everybody's wealth 

the Bolshevist Socialists 

hope to be able 

to give jobs 

to everybody. 

What everybody needs 

is not a job 

but a mission. 

When the Irish were Irish, 

they were missionaries. 

By grabbing 

Irish Culture, 

as it was done 

by Irish missionaries, 

we hope to be able 

to give a mission 

162 



to everybody. 

Land of Refuge 

After the fall 

of the Roman Empire, 

the scholars, 

scattered all over 

the Roman Empire, 

looked for a refuge 

and found a refuge 

in Ireland, 

where the Roman Empire 

did not reach 

and where the Teutonic 

barbarians 
did not go. In 
Ireland, 

the scholars formulated an 
intellectual synthesis and a 
technique of action. Having 
formulated that intellectual 
synthesis and that technique 
of action, the scholars 
decided to lay 



the foundations of medieval 
Europe. 

Salons de Culture 

In order to lay the foundations 
of medieval Europe, the Irish 
Scholars established Salons 
de Culture in all the cities of 
Europe, as far as 
Constantinople, where people 
could look for 

thought 
so they could have light. 
And it was 

in the so-called Dark Ages 
which were not so dark, when 
the Irish were the light. But 
we are now living in a real- 
Dark Age, and one of the 
reasons why the modern age 
is so dark, is because too few 
Irish have the light. 

Free Guest Houses 

The Irish Scholars established 

free guest houses 

all over Europe 

to exemplify 

Christian charity. 

This made 

pagan Teutonic rulers 

tell pagan Teutonic people: 

"The Irish are good people 

busy doing good." 

And when the Irish 

were good people 

busy doing good, 



they did not bother 

about empires. 

That is why we never heard 

about an Irish Empire. 

We heard about 

all kinds of empires, 

including the British Empire, 

but never about 

an Irish Empire, 

because the Irish 

did not bother about empires 

when they were busy 

doing good. 

Agricultural Centers 

The Irish Scholars established 

agricultural centers 

all over Europe 

where they combined 

cult — 

that is to say liturgy 

with culture — 

that is to say literature, 

with cultivation — 

that is to say agriculture. 

And the word America 

was for the first time 

printed on a map 

in a town in east France 

called Saint-Die, 

where an Irish scholar 

by the name Deodad 

founded an agricultural 

center. 
What was done by Irish 
missionaries after the 
fall of the Roman Empire 
can be done today 
during and after the fall 
of modern empires. 



163 



CHRISTIANITY AND DEMOCRACY 



Leo XIII 

On several occasions 
Pope Leo XIII wrote on 
the legitimacy of 
several forms of 
government. In the 
encyclical "Diuturnum 
Illud" we find this 
sentence: "Nothing 
prevents the 

Church 
from giving its approval to 
the government of one man 
or several men as long as 
the government is a just 
government and applies 
itself to foster the common 

good." 

PiusX 

In a letter 

condemning the "Sillon" 

Pope Pius X 

takes up that doctrine. 

"The 'Sillon'," says Abbe 

Leclercq 
editor of La Cite chretienne 
"was a Christian 
democratic movement 
founded by Marc Sangnier. 
It was full of enthusiasm 
and generosity but lacked 
deep thought. It had 
allowed itself to present 
democracy as the only 
political regime in 
conformity with 
Christianity." "Denounced 
in Rome," continues Abbe 
Leclercq, "it was 
condemned 



for the preceding reason 
as well as imprudences in 
thought and language." 

Freda Kirchwey 

Freda Kirchwey, editor of The 
Nation, has an article on 
Religion and Democracy. 
"Democracy," she says, "may be 
Christian or it may be Jewish. It 
is related to whatever culture or 
whatever religious or non- 
religious ideas flourish in the 
society that breeds it." 
"Democracy," she continues, 
"has nothing on earth to do 
with any particular faith." 
Agrees With Two Popes The 
editor of The Nation agrees with 
Leo XIII as well as Pius X in 
the contention that Christianity 
is not tied up with any 
particular form of government. 
Don Sturzo attacks Fascism and 
several Bishops are defending 
it. A government can be 
autocratic or aristocratic or 
democratic. The duty of a 
government, whether it be 
autocratic or aristocratic 



164 




tfCfEWCE 



PttOGOESS SEHTtMENTAim 



or democratic, 

is to foster 

the common good. 

The Common Good 

The common good 

is not common, 

because common sense 

does not prevail. 

In a good autocracy 

the common good 

is incarnated 

in a good autocrat. 

In a good aristocracy 

the common good 

is incarnated 

in the good aristocrats. 

In a good democracy 

the common good 

is incarnated 

in the good democrats. 

The good democrats 

are democrats 

with the democratic spirit. 

They are the elite 



in a democracy. 

Democratic Elite 

Jules Beranger 

followed Jusserand 

as French Ambassador 

in Washington. 

Beranger was an agnostic 

who could not conceive 

of a democracy 

without a cultural elite. 

The elite in a democracy 

is imbued 

with what we call 

the right spirit. 

The democratic elite 

is the spearhead 

of a democratic society. 

The democratic elite 

is recruited 

from all classes 

of a democratic society. 

The democratic elite 

is not moved 

by greed for wealth 

165 



or greed for power. 

It is moved 

by clear thinking. 

Faith, Hope and Charity 

Agnostic intellectuals 

lack faith 

in Christ the Redeemer 

as well as 

in God the Omnipotent. 

And now 

they are losing faith 

in the power of man 



to pull himself up by 
his own bootstraps. 
Faith in Christ the 

Redeemer, 
hope in the life to come, 
and charity toward all men 
are motivating forces in 
the fostering of a 
democratic elite — without 
which a democratic society 
becomes the laughing-stock 
of totalitarian societies. 



166 



BOOK 6 



PIE IN THE SKY 



Bourgeois Capitalists 

Bourgeois capitalists 

don't want their pie 

in the sky 

when they die. 

They want their pie 

here and now. 

To get their pie 

here and now 

bourgeois capitalists 

give us 

better and bigger 

commercial wars 

for the sake of markets 

and raw materials. 

But as Sherman says, 

"War is hell." 

So we get hell 

here and now 

because bourgeois capitalists 

don't want their pie 

in the sky 

when they die, 

but want their pie 

here and now. 

Bolshevist Socialists 

Bolshevist Socialists, like 
bourgeois capitalists, don't 
want their pie in the sky 
when they die. They want 
their pie here and now. To 
get their pie here and now. 



Bolshevist Socialists 

give us 

better and bigger 

class wars 

for the sake 

of capturing the control 

of the means of production 

and distribution. 

But war is hell, 

whether it is 

a commercial war 

or a class war. 

So we get hell 

here and now 

because Bolshevist Socialists 

don't want their pie 

in the sky 

when they die, 

but want their pie 

here and now. 

Catholic Communionism 

Bolshevist Socialists 

as well as 

bourgeois capitalists 

give us hell 

here and now 

without 

leaving us the hope 

of getting our pie 

in the sky 

when we die. 

We just 

get hell. 

Catholic Communionism 

leaves us the hope 

169 



of getting our pie 
in the sky when we 
die without giving 
us hell here and 
now. 

Two of a Kind 

The bourgeois capitalist tells 
the Bolshevist Socialist, "We 
got what we got because 
we got it, and we are going 
to keep it no matter how we 
got it." The Bolshevist 
Socialist tells the bourgeois 
capitalist, "We want what 
we want because we want 
it, and we want what you 
got, and we are going to 
get it, no matter how we 
get it." The Bolshevist 
Socialist is the spiritual son 
of the bourgeois capitalist. 
All the sins of the father, 
the bourgeois capitalist, are 
found in the son, the 
Bolshevist Socialist. He is a 
chip from the old 

block, 
and the old block is a 
blockhead who has not 
learned to use his head. 

Class Struggle 

Bolshevist Socialists credit 
bourgeois capitalism with an 
historical mission. If 
bourgeois capitalism has an 
historical mission then 
Bolshevist Socialists should 
not interfere with the 
historical mission of 
bourgeois capitalism. 

170 



By interfering with what 
they call the historical 
mission of bourgeois 
capitalism through the 
technique of class 
struggle Bolshevist 
Socialists do not show 
much sense. 

Were I a Marxist 

Were 1 a Marxist 

I would desert 

the working class 

and join the capitalist class 

so as to be able 

to bring class consciousness 

to the working class. 

A class-conscious capitalist 

class 
would put the screws on the 
working class and by doing 
so bring class consciousness, 
to the working class. A class- 
conscious capitalist 

class 
and a class-conscious working 
class would fight for 
supremacy and bring about a 
bloody revolution. In the 
clash 

between two opposite classes 
1, as a member of the 
capitalist class, would be 
killed by the working class, 
but by my death would have 
contributed to bring about 
the emancipation of the 
working class. But I am not 
a Marxist; I am a Christian. 



Grave Diggers 

Bolshevist Socialists 

want to be 

the grave-diggers 

of bourgeois capitalism. 

They refuse 

to let the bourgeois capitalists 

dig their own graves. 

Fascists refuse 

to let the Bolshevist Socialists 

dig the graves 

of bourgeois capitalism. 

Fascists maintain 

that bourgeois capitalism 

is not dead yet 

and they will try 

to keep it alive. 

By trying to be 

the grave-diggers 

of bourgeois capitalism, 



Bolshevist Socialists 
bring in Fascism. 

A New Society Why 
not let bourgeois capitalists 
dig their own graves? And 
while the bourgeois 

capitalists 
dig their own graves, 
why not create a new 
society 

within the shell of the old, 
with the philosophy of the 

new, 
which is not a new 
philosophy but a very old 
philosophy, a philosophy 
so old that it looks like 
new. 



THE CANON LAW AND THE 
LAW OF THE CANNON 



St. Thomas More 

St. Thomas More believed 

in the Common Law. 

The Common Law 

that St. Thomas More 

believed in 

was rooted 

in Canon Law. 

Henry VIII believed 

that since he was a king 

he was the Law. 

St. Thomas More 

did not believe 

in Henry VIII's 

interpretation 

of Common Law. 

The Common Law 

as it exists 

in today's England 

has little relation 



to Canon Law. 

Judge Cardozo 

Judge Cardozo said 

that Common Law 

as it exists today 

in the United States 

does not make sense. 

Judge Cardozo proposed 

to discard Common Law 

and go back 

to Roman Law. 

If modern Common Law 

is bad, 

modern Roman Law 

is worse. 

Hitler and Mussolini 

believe in Roman Law. 

"To grab and to hold" 

is the aim 



171 



of Roman Law. 
"Divide to rule" is 
the motto 
of the Roman Law-minded 

Lawyers. 

Arthur Penty 

In a book entitled: 
"A Guildsman's 
Interpretation of History" 
Arthur Penty has a 
chapter on the revival of 
Roman Law. The revival 
of Roman Law 



in the 13th century 

brought about the disputes 

between Kings and Popes. 

The Kings 

are on the go. 

The Pope 

is still on the job. 

He writes encyclicals, 

but business men 

and politicians 

pay little attention 

to what he has to say. 

In the meantime, 

we are worrying 

about what Stalin, 

Hitler and Mussolini 

will do to us. 



HE LEFT SO MUCH 



When a man dies 

and leaves a lot of money 

the papers say: 

"He left so much." 

But they say: 

"He left so much." 

Why did he 

leave so much? 



Well, he did not know 

enough 
to carry it with him 
when he died by 
giving it to the poor 
for Christ's sake 
during his lifetime. 



LOGICAL AND 

What is not logical 

is not practical, 

even if it is practiced. 

What is logical 

is practical 

even if it is not practiced. 

To practice 

what is not logical 

though it is practical 

is to be a bourgeois. 

A bourgeois is a fellow 

who tries to be somebody 

by trying to be 

172 



PRACTICAL 

like everybody, 

which makes him . 

nobody. 

To practice 

what is logical 

even if it is not practiced 

is to be a leader. 

A leader is a fellow 

who follows a cause. 

The Sermon on the 

Mount 

will be called practical 

when Christians make up 

their mind, to 
practice it. 



BEYOND 



NATIONALISM 



31 



Germans and Poles 



The Germans think 

that they are civilized 

and the Poles 

are barbarians. 

The Germans 

invaded Poland 

to, place Poland 

where they think it belongs, 

wider the German rule. 

German rule 

is a military rule, 

not a personalist rule. 

A military rule 

breaks the will of the people, 

but does not change 

the heart of the people. 

A military rule 

is materially efficient 

but it is not 

spiritually efficient. 

Polish Writers 

After the first World War 
Poland established 
a personalist constitution. 
But military men in Poland 
discarded it 
so as to establish 
a more dictatorial 
military State. 

Bint Polish writers 

are not like 

roost German writers. 



Polish writers believe in 
spiritual values while 
German writers believe in 
materialist values. Polish 
writers believe in the power 
of the word; German writers 
believe in the power of the 
sword. 

Catholic Extremism 

Poland does not exist 

as a nation, 

but Poland exists 

as a culture. 

The expression of that culture 

by Polish writers 

in the Polish language 

will spread among Polish 

people. 
The Germans are suffering 
from extreme nationalism; 
the Poles must face them 
with extreme Catholicism. 
The extreme nationalism 

of Germany is the logical 
product of the deformation 
of Christian doctrine and 

practice 
by the Keformation. 
Catholic people must 
quit looking up to 
Protestant people and 
return 

to the Catholic extremism 
of primitive Christians. 



173 



TRUE STORIES 



Only a Frenchman 

When I was in Spokane 

a Catholic Sister 

told me: 

"I have a little story 

to tell you 

and I think 

you will like it. 

I met an Indian woman 

who was carrying 

what looked like 

a white boy. 

I said to her: 

'You don't mean to tell me 

that you married 

a white man.' 

'Oh no,' she said, 

'Just a Frenchman'." 

Nine Englishmen 

An Englishman 

and an American 

were flying over 

the Egyptian Soudan. 

Under them 

was a stretch of houses 

four miles long. 

The American 

asked the Englishman: 

"What is the population 



of this town?" "Nine 
Englishmen," answered 
the Englishman. 

Germans and English 

A German 

owned a fruit farm 

in British Columbia. 

He and his wife 

were considered 

as second-class citizens 

by the British element. 

His wife succeeded 

in inducing him 

to sell the fruit farm 

and go back to Germany. 

She could not stand 

to be considered inferior 

by the British element. 

The English think 

that they are superior 

to the Germans 

and the Germans think 

they are superior 

to the English. 

They cannot stand 

to be considered 

inferiors. 

They can give it 

but cannot take it. 




174 



LET'S BE FAIR TO THE NEGROES 



FOR CHRIST'S SAKE 



Anthropologists Say 

The anthropologists say that 
the western world is 
anthropologically divided 
into four kinds of people 1 . 
They are: 

a) the Nordics, 

b) the Alpines, 

c) the Mediterraneans, 

d) the Negroes. 
Anthropologists add 
that there is nothing 
in science 

to prove 

that one race 

is superior 

to another race. 

Science cannot prove 

that the Nordics 

are superior 

to another race. 

Theologians Say 

Theologians say 

that Christ died 

for the redemption 

of the Negroes 

as well as 

the Nordics. 

The Nordics 

were created 

by the same Creator 

and redeemed 

by the same Redeemer 

as the Negroes. 

The redeemed Nordics 

will enjoy 

the beatific vision 

in the same Heaven 

as the Negroes. 

The redeemed Nordics 



receive the same Christ 

at the altar rail 

as the Negroes. 

The redeemed Nordics 

belong to the same 

Mystical Body 

as the Negroes. 

Nordic and Negro Bishops 

The Holy Father has 
recently selected African 
Negro priests and made 
them Bishops. The Negro 
Bishops of Africa 
have the same powers as 
the Nordic Bishops of 
Germany. Nordic Bishops 
are all right for Nordic 
people and Negro Bishops 
are all right for Negro 
people. The Catholic 
Church wants Nordic 
Bishops to lead Nordic 
people and Negro Bishops 
to lead Negro people. The 
Catholic Church does not 
differentiate between 
Nordic Bishops and Negro 
Bishops. 

American Negroes 
American Negroes think 
they must keep up with 
white people. American 
Negroes don't need to keep 
up with white people. 
American Negroes 



175 



can keep up 

with St. Augustine. 

St. Augustine, 

who lived 

in North Africa, 

is one of the Fathers 

of the Catholic Church. 

If American Negroes 



made up their minds 
to keep up with St. 
Augustine they would 
be able to make white 
Nordics look up to 
them instead of 
looking up to white 
Nordics. 



THE MONEY SYSTEM 



Humiliation and Doubt 

"1 believe 

there must be persons 

who, like myself, 

were deeply shaken 

by the events 

of September, 1938. 

It was a feeling of humilia- 
tion 

which seemed to demand 

an act of personal contrition, 

repentance, 

and amendment, 

as well as a doubt 

in the validity 

of a civilization. 

Was our society, 

which had always been so 
assured 

of its superiority 

and rectitude, 

so confident 

of its unexamined promises, 

assembled around anything 

more permanent 

than a congeries of banks, 

insurance companies 

and industries?" 

— T. S. Eliot. 

* * o o * * 

Thomas Wilson 

John Calvin was the 
first man 



to legalize 

money-lending at interest. 

John Knox, 

a Scotchman, 

brought the idea 

to Scotland. 

From Scotland, 

it went to England, 

where they legalized it 

around 1575. 

Thomas Wilson 

wrote a discourse on usury 

in 1572 

where he quotes 

the Prophets of Israel 

and the Fathers of the 

Church. 
When Thomas Wilson 
was a student Thomas 
More 

was Chancellor of England 
and the Catholic doctrine 
on usury was still taught 
in the schools of England. 

Maynard Keynes 

Maynard Keynes was the 
financial representative 
of the English government 
at Versailles. After 
Versailles Maynard Keynes 
wrote a book entitled 



176 



"The Economic Consequences 
of the Peace." 

In this book 

Maynard Keynes pointed out 

the bad economic conse- 
quences 

that would result 

from the Treaty of 
Versailles. 

France and England 



paid little attention to 
what he had to say. 
Later on, 

Maynard Keynes declared 
that "modern economists 
ought to ask themselves if 
medieval economists were 
not sound when they 
condemned money-lending 
at interest." 



FOR GOD'S SAKE 



Honest to God 

One of the slogans of 
the Middle Ages was 
"Honest to God." We 
have ceased to be 
"Honest to God." We 
think more about 
ourselves than we do 
about God. 

We have ceased to be 
God-centered and have 
become self- centered. 

Father Denifle 

Father Denifle 

was an Austrian Dominican. 

In 1872, 

he delivered four sermons 

in Graz, Austria, 

about "Humanity, 

its destiny 

and the means 

to achieve it." 

Translated by a priest 

of Covington, Kentucky, 

these four sermons 

were published in America 

by Pustet, the editor. 

Father Denifle emphasizes 

that having forgotten God, 



humanity 
cannot realize 
its own destiny. 
God has not 
forgotten man, 
but man has 
forgotten God. 

American Founders 

The founders of America 

came to America 

to serve God 

the way they thought 

God wants to be served. 

How God 

wants to be served 

is no longer taught 

in American schools. 

How to be successful 

is still taught 

in American schools. 

Thinking of time 

in terms of money 

is at the base 

of the thinking 

of our business men. 

We put on our coins: 

"In God we trust," 

but persist in thinking 

that everybody else 

ought to pay cash. 

177 



Cardinal Gasquet 

Cardinal Gasquet 

was an English Benedictine. 

He was a student 

of that period 

of English history 

that preceded 

the Reformation. 

In a book entitled: 

"The Eve of the Reformation" 

he points out 

that externalism 

— another word 

for materialism — 

prevailed in that period 

of English history. 

The externalism 

of English Bishops 

made them 

follow the King 

instead of the Pope 

when the King ceased 



to mind the Pope, 

St. Augustine 

St. Augustine said, 
"Love God 

and do what you please." 
We do what we please 
but we don't love God. 
We don't love God 
because we don't know 

God. 
We don't know God 
because we don't try to 
know God. And man was 
created in the image of 
God and every creature 
speaks to us about God 
and the Son of God came 
to earth to tell us about 
God. 



IF 



What a fine place 


wants them to be. 


this world would be 


What a fine place 


if Dualist Humanists 


this world would be 


tried to be human 


if Fundamentalist Protestants 


to men. 


tried to exemplify 


What a fine place 


the Sermon on the Mount. 


this world would be 


What a fine place 


if Personalist Theists 


this world would be 


tried to be 


if Roman Catholics 


their brother's keeper 


tried to keep up 


as God 


with St. Francis of Assisi. 


^J 


ffl^^Ld^^ 



178 



THE POPE AND THE WORLD 



That Grey Eminence 

In his book entitled 

"Grey Eminence" 

Aldous Huxley says 

that the business 

of theocentrists 

is to help the people 

to see the world 

the way God 

sees the world. 

Father Joseph said 

he made the big mistake 

of helping Richelieu 

side with Protestant Germany 

and Sweden 

against Catholic Germany 

and Austria 

during the Thirty Years' 

War. 
While France was united 
under one King the Treaty of 
Westphalia of 1648 
kept Germany divided in 300 
principalities. 

Worldly Empires 

Under the leadership 

of the Hohenzollerns 

the 300 German principalities 

became united 

and formed 

the German Empire. 

The German Empire 

was first 

a Continental Empire 

but later on 

it decided to become 

a Colonial Empire 

like the British Empire 



and the French Empire. 

The aim 

of the British Empire, 

of the French Empire, 

of the German Empire 

is to exchange food 

and raw materials 

for gadgets. 

The French Empire 

has gone to pieces 

and the British Empire 

is fighting 

the German Empire. 

A Theocentric Pope 

The German Empire 

controls much of the land 

but the British Empire 

controls the sea. 

The French Government 

wants to buy food 

in America 

to feed the people 

but the British Empire, 

which controls the sea, 

refuses to let the food 

pass the British blockade. 

A theocentric Pope 

tells the world 

that God wants 

that the poor be fed 

but people in control 

of the British Empire 

tell the theocentric Pope 

to mind his own business. 

But the business 

of a theocentric Pope 

is to tell the world 

what God wants him 

to tell the world. 



179 



ON SPECIALIZATION 



A College Professor 

Ten years ago 

I asked a college professor 

to give me the formulation 

of those universal concepts 

embodied 

in the universal message 

of universal universities 

that would enable 

the common man 

to create 

a universal economy. 

And the college professor 
answered: 

"That is not my subject." 

College professors 

are specialists 

who know more and more 

about less and less 

and if they keep on specializ- 
ing 

they will end 

by knowing everything 

about nothing. 

A Negro Student 

A Negro student had 
a father 

who was a Baptist minister. 
The Baptist minister gave to 
his son Baptist theology but 
no science. And the son 
wanted to know science. In 
the University of Pittsburgh 
the Negro student 
learned several sciences 
without correlation. And 
the Negro student was 
complaining 

180 



about the University of 

Pittsburgh for having 
failed to give him a 
correlated knowledge. 

Henry Adams 

Henry Adams 

went to four American uni- 
versities 

without acquiring 

a correlated knowledge. 

He went to England 

and failed. 

He went to France 

and failed. 

But in France, 

looking at 

the Cathedral of Chartres 

and the Mont Saint Michel, 

he realized 

that one could have acquired 

a correlated knowledge 

in thirteenth century France. 

And he wrote a book entitled 

"Mont Saint Michel 

and Chartres," 

now published 

by the American Society of 
Architects. 

Dr. Herbert E. Cory 

Dr. Herbert E. Cory 

is now Dean 

of the Department 

of Liberal Arts 

of the State University 

of Washington. 

The problem of specialization 

used to worry him 

when he was an atheist 

and a Marxist. 

With the help of a Jesuit 



he found the solution. And 
this led him into the Catholic 
Church. You can find the 
presentation of the correlated 
knowledge of Dr. Herbert E. 
Cory 



in his book entitled: 
"The Emancipation 
of a Free Thinker." 
Bruce, of Milwaukee, 
is the publisher. 



ON PERSONALISM 



Individual 

A stone 

is not an individual. 

You can make little ones 

out of big ones. 

A tree 

is an individual. 

It comes 

from a germ. 

"Only God 

can make a tree," 

says the poet. 

A horse 

is an individual. 

The horse is not 

an individual 

the way the tree 

is an individual. 

It has animal life. 

Man is an individual 

and has animal life 

like the horse. 

Man has also reason, 

which the horse has not. 

A Person 

As an animal, 

man is an individual. 

As a reasoning animal, 

man is a person. 

The difference 

between an individual 

and a person 

is the power of reasoning. 

Through the use of reason 

man becomes aware 



of the existence of God. 
Through the use of reason 
man becomes aware of his 
rights as well as his 
responsibilities. Man's 
rights and responsibilities 
come from God, who 
made him a reasoning 
animal. Man's 
primary duty is to act 
according to reason. 

Faith 

To guide himself 

man has 

not only reason 

but also faith. 

Faith 

is not opposed to reason, 

it is above reason. 

The use of reason 

leads to faith, 

but reason 

cannot understand 

all the faith. 

The truths of faith 

that reason 

cannot understand, 

we call 

the mysteries of faith. 

To use reason 

is to philosophize 

and philosophy 



181 



is the handmaid of faith. 

Some truths 

we get through reason 

and some truths 

we get through faith. 

Emmanuel Mounier 

Emmanuel Mounier wrote 
a book entitled "A 
Personalist Manifesto." 
Emmanuel Mounier has 
been influenced by 
Charles Peguy. Charles 
Peguy once said: "There 
are two things in the 
world: 



politics and mysticism." 

For Charles Peguy 

as well as Mounier, 

politics 

is the struggle for power 

while mysticism 

is the realism 

of the spirit. 

For the man-of-the-street 

politics 

is just politics 

and mysticism 

is the right spirit. 

In his "Personalist Manifesto" 

Mounier tries to explain 

what the man-of-the-street 

calls "the right spirit." 



FIVE FORMS OF CAPITALISM 

Mercantile Capitalism 



In the Middle Ages 

the consumer 

went to the producer 

and asked the producer 

to produce something 

for him. 

There was no middle man 

between the producer 

and the consumer. 

When the producer 

started to sell his products 

to the middle man 

he no longer 

saw the consumer. 

The producer 

saw only the middle man 

and the consumer 

saw only the middle man 

and the middle man 

was only interested 

in buying cheap 

and selling dear. 

And the functional society 

ceased to exist 

182 



and the acquisitive society 
came into existence And 
everybody shouted: "Time is 
money!" 

Factory Capitalism 
When the use of steam 
was discovered 
the middle men 
started factories. 
The craftsmen 
deserted their craft shops 
and went to work 
in the factories 
and became 
factory hands. 
Factory owners 
turned out gadgets 
to take drudgery 
out of the home. 
And then they took women 
out of the home 
and brought them 
into factories. 
And then they took children 



out of the home 

and brought them 

into factories. 

And men had to stay home 

to look after young children. 

Monopoly Capitalism 
With the American Civil War, 
monopoly capitalism came 
into existence. With 
monopoly capitalism came 
the trusts. With monopoly 
capitalism came high tariffs 
for the protection of infant 
industries. With monopoly 
capitalism came unionism for 
the protection of 
proletarianized workers. 
With monopoly capitalism 
came trust-busting laws for 
the protection of the buying 
public. With monopoly 
capitalism came Federal 
laws for the conservation of 
raw materials. 

Finance Capitalism 

With the first World War 
finance capitalism came into 
existence. With finance 
capitalism came installment 
buying. In January, 1927, the 
Yale Review published an 
article by a business man in 
which he said 



that installment buying 

has the result 

of booming boom years 

and starving lean years. 

Installment buying 

gave us the New Era 

and the promise 

of a two-car garage, 

a chicken in every pot 

and a sign "To Let" 

in front of every poorhouse. 

But this promise 

failed to materialize 

and people found themselves 

in the midst of the depression. 

State Capitalism 

Finance capitalism 

has not been able 

to employ 

the unemployed. 

The State 

has now assumed the task 

of employing the unemployed. 

Economic activities 

are now supervised 

by State bureaucrats. 

State bureaucrats 

can give the people 

State supervision. 

State supervision 

is not a substitute 

for personal vision. 

And without personal vision 

people perish. 

Personalist vision 

leads to personalist action. 

Personalist action 

means personal responsibility. 

Personal responsibility 

means dynamic democracy. 



183 



FOR A NEW ORDER 



The Age of Reason 

In the seventeenth century 

a Frenchman 

by the name of Descartes 

discarded Thomistic philos- 
ophy 

and formulated 

a philosophy of his own. 

St. Thomas' philosophy 

starts with Aristotle 

and helps the reason 

to accept revelation. 

For St. Thomas Aquinas 

reason is the handmaid of 
faith; 

not so for Descartes. 

The eighteenth century 

became known 

as the age of enlightenment 

or the age of reason. 

An American 

by the name of Thomas Paine 

wrote a book entitled 

"The Age of Reason." 

The Age of Treason 

The use of reason was 
discarded by the intellectuals 
of the nineteenth century. 
Romanticism, positivism, 
pragmatism, one after 
another, became the fashion 
in the nineteenth century. In 
a book entitled "The Treason 
of the Intellectuals" Julien 
Benda, a French Jew, says 
the intellectuals gave up the 
search for truth 

184 



and consented to become 

the paid propagandists 

of nationalists 

as well as capitalists. 

So the age of reason 

of the eighteenth century 

was followed 

by the age of treason 

of the nineteenth century. 

The Age of Chaos 

And we are now 

in the age of chaos. 

In an age of chaos 

people look 

for a new order. 

What makes for chaos 

is lack of order. 

Because people are becoming 

aware 
of this lack of order they 
would like to be able to create 
order 1 out of chaos. The time 
to create order out of chaos 
is now. 

The germ of the present was 
in the past and the germ of 
the future is in the present. 
The thing to do is to give up 
old tricks and start to play 
new tricks. 

The Age of Order 

If we make 

the right decisions 

in the age of chaos 

the effect of those decisions 

will be a better order. 

The new order 

brought about 



by right decisions 
will be functional, 
not acquisitive; 
personalist, not 
socialist; 
communitarian, 
not collectivism 
organismic, not 
mechanistic. 



The thing to do right now is 
to create a new society 
within the shell of the old 
with the philosophy of tha 

new, 
which is not a new philosophy 
but a very old philosophy, a 
philosophy so old that it 
looks like new. 



ON AMERICAN TRAITS 



"My Experience Teaches Me" 

"1 have lived in all the 
major dictatorships — Russia, 
Italy, Germany. My 
experience teaches me that 
democracy with all its faults 
is better 

than any of these. My 
experience teaches me that 
the maintenance of personal 
freedom should be 
the primary consideration of 
every human being. It is 
never a choice between 
freedom and a full stomach. 
No dictatorship has given 
either." 

— Louis Fisher. 

Three Characteristics 

At the base 

of the American spirit 

is the functionalism 

of frontier life, 

not the acquisitivism 

of the Chamber of Commerce 

The American spirit 

is characterized 

by the love of freedom, 



the spirit of initiative 

and the will to co-operate. 

The American 

does not like 

to be pushed about 

and to be sent 

where he does not want 

to go. 

Even the business man 

likes to talk about 

the spirit of initiative, 

which he calls 

free enterprise. 

When in America 

some one is busy 

doing something 

for the common good 

he finds people 

willing to co-operate. 

Love of Freedom 

Freedom is a duty 
more than a right. 
Man has a duty 
to be intelligent. 
Man has a duty 
to choose intelligently 
between two alternatives. 
Man has a duty 
to act intelligently, 
using pure means 
to reach pure aims. 
To use impure means 
185 



to reach pure aims 
is to take the wrong road. 
You cannot go 
where you want to go 
by taking a road 
which does not lead 

you there. Having pure 
aims and using pure 
means is making the 
right use of freedom. 

Spirit of Initiative 

The spirit of initiative is 
what business men call 
free enterprise. A private 
enterprise must be 
carried out for the 
common good. If a 
private enterprise is not 
carried out for the 
common good it turns 
out to be a public 
nuisance. A public 
nuisance produces 
grievances. Personal 
grievances against public 
nuisances produce 
demagogues who 
promise to wipe out 
public nuisances. The 
spirit of initiative of 
social-minded people 
brings into existence 



social institutions 
that make for the welfare 
of the common people. 
Will to Co-operate 
When someone has 
something considered by 
the 

common man to be 
beneficial to the 
common good he is 
admired by the 
common man. The 
admiration of 
unselfish men who 
are not afraid to take 
the initiative creates 
a desire among the 
admirers to climb on 
the 

bandwagon of men of 
initiative. They want to 
be part of an unselfish 
movement. They are 
willing to make sacrifices 
for the common cause. So 
the will to co-operate is 
the result of the daring of 
unselfish men who are 
not afraid to take the 
initiative. 



186 



INDUSTRIALISM 



It Started With England 

Lenin said: 

"The world cannot be 

half industrial 

and half agricultural." 

Lenin made the mistake 

of industrializing Russia. 

Lenin industrialized Russia 

because the Japanese 

industrialized Japan. 

The Japanese industrialized 

Japan 
because the Americans 
industrialized America. The 
Americans industrialized 

America 
because the Germans 
industrialized Germany. The 
Germans industrialized 

Germany 
because the English 
industrialized England. It 
started with England. 

A Few Englishmen 

R. H. Tawney said 

that the Englishmen wear 

blinkers. 
Because they wear blinkers 
the Englishmen lack vision. 
Because they lack vision the 
Englishmen are very strong 
for supervision. And 
supervision is not a 
substitute for vision. A few 
Englishmen got rid of their 
blinkers. Among the 
Englishmen who got rid of 
their blinkers one can name: 



William Cobbett, 
John Ruskin, 
William Morris, 
Arthur Penty, 
Hilaire Belloc, G. 
K. Chesterton, Eric 
Gill. The best of all 
is Eric Gill. 

Legalized Usury 
"The sex problem, the 
marriage problem, the 
crime problem, the 
problem of armaments and 
international trade, all 
those problems could be 
solved if we would 
recognize the necessity of 
abolishing trade in money, 
and especially the 
international trade in 

money; 
that is to say, the usury, 
the legalized usury, 
practiced by the banks 
under the protection of 
their charters with the 
support of the so-called 
orthodox economists. That 
is the first thing to be 
recognized." 

— Eric Gill. 

God and Mammon 

Christ says: 

"The dollar you have 

is the dollar you give 

to the poor 

for my sake." 

187 



The banker says: 
"The dollar you have 
is the dollar you lend 
me for your sake." 
Christ says: "You 
cannot serve two 
masters, 



God and Mammon." 

"You cannot, 

and all our education 

is to try to find out 

how we can 

serve two masters, 

God and Mammon," 

says Robert Louis Stevenson. 



CATHOLIC ACTION 



Our Business 

Catholic bourgeois used to 
tell the clergy "Mind your 
own business and don't 
butt in on our business." 
Catholic bourgeois by 
keeping up with non- 
Catholic bourgeois have 
made a mess of their own 
business. And now the 
Holy Father tells Catholic 
bourgeois "The Bishop's 
business is your business." 

The Bishop's Voice 

The Bishop's business 

is to teach 

the Christian Doctrine. 

The Holy Father 

appoints a Bishop 

to a seat (a cathedral) 

so people may hear the 

truth 
that will set them free. 
Clergy, teachers, journalists 
are the amplifiers of the 
Bishop's voice. Fathers and 
mothers must also be the 
Bishop's voice. Bishop 
O'Hara is fostering the. 
teaching of Christian 
Doctrine 

188 



by fathers and mothers. 
Everything connected 
with the teaching of 
Christian Doctrine can 
be called Catholic 
Action No. 1. 
Works of Mercy 
But the Bishop, although 
he is a Bishop, cannot 
teach an empty stomach. 
Some people are Bishop- 
shy because they are 
hungry, shivering or 
sleepy. So the Bishop 
asks the faithful to feed 
the hungry, clothe, the 
naked, shelter the 
homeless at a sacrifice. 
Feeding the hungry, 
clothing the naked, 
sheltering the homeless 
at a sacrifice was the 
daily practice of the first 
Christians. The daily 
practice of the Works of 
Mercy is what we can 
call Catholic Action No. 2. 
Social Reconstruction 
We are asked by the Holy 
Father 



to reconstruct the social 

order. Reconstructing the 

social 
order 

means the creation , of a 
Catholic society within the 
shell of a non-Catholic 
society with the philosophy 
of a Catholic society. Catholic 
bourgeois made the mistake 
of trying to keep up with 
non-Catholic bourgeois. 
Catholic reconstructors must 
create a Catholic technique 
in harmony with Catholic 
thought. Social 
reconstruction by Catholic 
laymen and 
women 

is what we can call 

Catholic Action No. 3. 
Three Kinds 

Catholic Action No. 1, 



or the teaching 

of Christian Doctrine, 

must be carried out 

with the Bishop's supervision. 

Catholic Action No. 2, 

or the daily practice 

of the Works of Mercy, 

can be carried out 

with or without 

the Bishop's supervision. 

Catholic Action No. 3, 

or the reconstruction 

of the social order. 

through the foundation 

of new Catholic institutions, 

must be left 

to the initiative 

of Catholic men and women. 

The function of the Bishops 

is to be 

not directors 

but moderators. 

Political action 

is not to be considered 

as Catholic Action. 



THE ROAD TO COMMUNISM 



Paraguay Redactions 

In a book entitled "The 
Magic Mountain" Thomas 
Mann has a character who has 
become a Jesuit after having 
been a Marxist. As a Jesuit 
he could understand Com- 
munism much better than he 
could understand it as a 
Marxist. In Paraguay the 
Jesuits established a 
Communist society. Part of 
the land 



was held individually. 
The other part, known as 
God's land, was cultivated 
in common. The produce 
was used for the 
maintenance of the aged, 
the infirm and the young. 

Proudhon and Marx 

"Communism is a society 
where each one works 
according to his ability 
and gets according to his 

needs." 



Such a definition does not 
come from Marx; it comes 
from Proudhon. Proudhon 
wrote two volumes on "The 
Philosophy of 

Poverty" which 
Karl Marx read in 
two days. 



Karl Marx wrote a volume 

on "The Poverty of Philos- 
ophy." 

Karl Marx 

was too much of a materialist 

to understand the philo- 
sophical 

and therefore social value 

of voluntary poverty. 




190 





AT I O N 



RECRE ATION 



B^tefri^tBT 






POLIT IC S 



e C ONOMICS 



FOUR INTERVIEWS WITH 
PETER 

By ARTHUR SHEEHAN 

[From the CATHOLIC WORKER, issues of April, May, June and 
July-August, 1943.] 

I. On the Land 

Do you believe that people must have an agricultural college 
training before going on the land, Peter? 

These colleges don't always educate persons to stay on the 
land. I am in favor of people learning by doing. 

How can this return to the land be made a dynamic move- 
ment? 

It takes dynamic persons. 

What do you mean by dynamic persons? 

Persons with convictions, who foster actions based on convic- 
tions, not based on someone giving orders. 

Then the driving impulse must come from within people, you 
would say? 

A leader must be a personalist. If he is a personalist, he will 
not be a dictator. He will change the attitude of others through 
the power of example. It takes an awful lot of patience. 

Would you have the members of your farming commune all 
eat at a common table? 

No, I am against the community kitchen idea. Each family 
should have their own house. 

How about the single persons on a farming commune? 

The ideal is to have them live in the homes of the married 
couples. However, this must not be forced but must come 
through the couples themselves accepting the single persons. 

Why do you prefer this way? 

To develop a community spirit. In my town, there were two 
brothers, one married with a wife and children and the other 
unmarried. The latter lived with his brother. One day his 
brother was killed by a tree as they were working together. 

193 



The unmarried brother then became the guardian of the fam- 
ily. That was the true Christian spirit. 

How would you break down that feeling of isolation people 
have in the country? 

It must come from the development of a community spirit. 
We wish to be halfway between the collectivist idea of every- 
thing in common and the hermit way with people being rugged 
individualists. 

Could you mention a book where some ideas on the person- 
atist and communitarian way could be found? 

There is something on it in Guardini's book, "The Church 
and the Catholic." 

Hoio about community prayer? 

There should be some prayer life in common, but it should 
come from an inner desire, not be forced. There also must be 
intellectual discussion as well as the work to be done in the 
fields and crafts. 

You speak of the "three C's" often. What are they? 

They are cuit, culture and cultivation. 

By cult, do you mean liturgical prayer? 

Yes, community prayer and the relationship of our work to 
it. For this study, I recommend Guardini's book. 

What do you mean by culture? 

There must be intellectual discussion, but it must come spon 
taneously, not be forced. It can be in the fields when you're 
working. It makes the labor lighter and breaks down that 
rugged individualist spirit which comes when people work 
alone. ' 

Have you any books along this line to recommend? 

Yes, there is one by a Polish priest, "Is Modern Culture 
Doomed?" 

And what about cultivation! 

The private gardens needn't be so big. Then they will not 
take too much time for isolated work. More time can be spent 
in the fields together. 

Have you a book that might interest along this line? 

I would advise this book by Father McNabb, "Old Principles 
and the New Order." (Sheed and Ward.) 

On which of these three phases should the emphasis be 
placed? 

If too much attention is paid to one to the detriment of an- 
other, things go wrong. There must be a balance. Different 
persons have different inclinations. Those whose inclination is 
to work with their hands more than their heads will become 
disgruntled if too much time is given to discussion. If not 

194 



enough time is given to discussion and there is too much physi- 
cal work, the intellectually minded will fall away. People 
must sense when there is a lack of proportion. 

What makes for a good morale on a farming commune? 

It comes from harmony when the emphasis on prayer, dis- 
cussion and work is rightly balanced. 

How many families do you think there should be on a farm- 
ing commune? 

You must adjust yourself to your acreage. It does not make 
for the ideal to have limits. It ceases to be a personal idea. 
There must be crafts besides farming. 

Are you in favor of small groups? 

People must know each other. You must try to do away with 
factionalism. Even one family could begin on a farm and build 
for others. You build as you go along. It is a progressive thing. 

In other words, you want to get people on the land? 

First to get them thinking so that they see they should go on 
the land. 

Why don't you believe in a formal training previous to going 
on the land? 

Education is a life process. People learn by doing. Trouble 
is, people want blueprints. I don't want to give blueprints. Let 
them struggle with it. As they face problems, they get light. I 
must be available to discuss problems with them for clarifica- 
tion. 

If the place is too small, there are not enough crafts, not 
enough variety. One thousand families wouldn't be too many, 
if they had the right idea. The craftsmen were the villagers. 
St. Dunstan's College on Prince Edward Island is doing the 
right thing, fostering a movement to bring craftsmen back to 
the villages. Then the farmers there wouldn't have to sell their 
wheat and fish and have to ship them out at a loss. 

My grandfather was a craftsman and a farmer. He was a 
carpenter, a quarryman, a slate worker and he made baskets to 
carry dough to the bakers. Dick Aherne, of the Philadelphia 
group, was a city boy but he learned so that now he can teach 
others. He learned by working. The trouble with agricultural 
colleges is that they prepare people for business farming. Bet- 
ter go out to a farmer to learn. 

My aim is to make people think. I am a personalist medieval- 
ist, which makes me a medievalist communist. 

But what about ownership, Peter? 

Families want their own land, their own house, although St. 
Gertrude said, "Property, the more common it becomes, the 
more holy it becomes." 

195 



About ownership, the size of a piece of land depends on the size of the 
family. There can be the combination of the two kinds, private ownership 
and communal ownership. 1 always make a case for the communal 
ownership, which is the ideal. Here in America people homesteaded but 
they became the victims of their isolation and their children left the 
farms and went to the cities. They forgot the village idea which was in 
Europe but went off by themselves. It was really the spirit of 
individualism which came from the Reformation, and Catholics 
unfortunately followed it, forgetting the community, the liturgical idea. 

II. On Land and Children 

Peter, why do you say that being on the land is better for children? 

It's a matter of fresh food, fresh air and being away from city streets. 

Do you think that children get a better outlook on life in the country? 

Life on the land makes a child reflective. He watches the different life 
processes working out before his eyes, and it makes him think. He 
watches the growth of the animals and plants, and he gets an organic view 
of life. 

By organic, you mean he sees the function or purpose of each part? 

Yes; he sees the purpose through the medium of his own eyes ; It doesn't 
come through books and through the memory, as a city child has to learn 
these things. The child absorbs more in a leisurely way through life on the 
land. 

Why do you often say "a child is an asset on the farm, a liability in the 
city"? 

When the child sees his father doing useful work on a farm, the desire 
to be useful is born in the child. The child then wants to help his father, 
and it is good for the child to work with its father. I was plowing at 
eleven. The work on the farm gives the child the right form of exercise. 
It is exercise with a purpose, not just exercise for the sake of exercise, as 
is so often the case in sports. We say that we should read with a purpose, 
then why not exercise with a purpose? 

Then you would say that the boundless energy of the child is used up 
usefully on the farm, whereas in the city the child dissipates a lot of his 
energy in wasteful sports. 

Yes, the purpose of exercise is health, but why not get it 



while doing the more useful work? The farm work gives the 
child the right opportunity. 

How explain then, Peter, the fact that children often wish 
to get away from the farm? 

The schools most often are to blame. They hold up city 
ideals. The children are educated even in country schools to 
look up to city living as a superior form of living. It doesn't 
help to make the child realize the fact that the country is more 
important than the city. The ideal that working with your 
head is superior to working with your head and your hands is 
taught or implied. This is how we get so many crazy ideas in 
society today. 

But the parents must see these things, too, Peter, else how 
can they point them out to the children? 

Yes, often the farmer doesn't see the superiority of this work- 
ing with hands and head. The farmers often feel inferior to 
"so-called educated" city folks. The city people look down too 
much on the farmers. 

That is really a form of snobbery. 

Yes, it is. 

Isn't it strange, Peter, that men have to break down and be 
sent to mental hospitals before there is a realization of the im- 
portance of farm and craft work as a means to mental health? 

When the system has shattered their minds, they have to go 
to those places. The working in crafts and in gardens is known 
to bring a better balance to their minds. 

Ade de Bethune once said that many persons can only see ab- 
stract principles through the medium of the material which 
they mould or shape with their hands. 

I know a woman who has come to an understanding of Cath- 
olic dogma through studying Ade's drawings. She just couldn't 
grasp it otherwise. 

(Ade tries to explain the importance of little actions, such 
as cooking, carpentry work, all the different actions of house- 
keeping, as a means to developing the whole person.) 

Does the idea of a piece of land for himself have to be held 
up to the child as an ideal so that he will stay on the land? 

Something much more than that is necessary. You must 
realize the selfishness that is in the child and try to offset it. If 
the child is taught to consider material ownership as a sole 
badge of respect, he is not taught enough. He must be taught 
the idea of using material things to help other people. This is 
the idea of stewardship, which is so opposed to the idea of abso- 
lute ownership of property. The child wishes to be recognized, 
but he should be taught to see that the right kind of recognition 

197 



is to be recognized by your fellow man as one who helps people 
and not as one merely possessing things. 

You often speak of folk schools such as they have in Den- 
mark. Do you think they are a better way of education? 

Yes, 1 do. Take the matter of folk dances. Through these 
dances the child comes to see the necessity of co-operation with 
other children to perform the dances. The children are at- 
tracted to the music through the senses, and through the music 
they get the idea. The songs stick easily in the memory. Folk 
dances lead to folk songs. 

/ remember, Peter, someone saying that in parts of New- 
foundland they create songs at their parties. 

Yes, that is true of many folk cultures. The song brings ideas 
to the mind in an attractive way. Then you don't have to look 
to Tin Pan Alley to create your music for you. 

The purpose of the music is to get ideas into the head. The 
idea then should start the will into action, and when it does, 
the soul is happy. Action must follow ideas. The sin of the in- 
tellectuals is to let the good ideas stay in their heads. They do 
not result in action, and, since they should be the leaders and 
are looked up to by the workers as leaders, this irresponsibility 
on their part is the reason why the workers turn against the 
intellectuals. 

It all goes back to what you say about the scholars having 
to become workers end the workers becoming scholars, if we 
are to bring right order into society. 

The knowledge-for-knowledge-sake business is no good. It 
must be used for the common good. The worker often doesn't 
think, and consequently doesn't have the answers. If the in- 
tellectuals just talk, they make no impression on him. When 
the worker sees the intellectual putting his ideas into action, he 
says, "What's the great idea?" and he watches him. He sees 
that he reads books for enlightenment, and he is attracted to 
reading them, too, and that is what he needs, namely, to culti- 
vate his mind. 

III. On Folk Schools 

We were speaking about fo Ik schools the last time. Have you 
any further ideas on them, Peter? 

We need these folk schools so people can understand the sig- 
nificance of folk cultures and can learn from these cultures. 
The folk dances and folk songs help us to understand. Consider 
the Negro spirituals. The rhythms came from Africa and the 
Negroes of the South applied them to what they had learned 

198 



of Christian teaching, and out of the two came a new cultural 
development. 

You mentioned one time something Kenkel, the editor of 
Social Justice and Central Blatt, once said about folk proverbs. 

He said that the proverbs of the German peasants would fill 
several volumes the size of Webster's if they were published. 
They weren't translated into English, and so we find the Eng- 
lish-speaking people falling for the proverbs of the Manchester 
school: "Time is money," "Business is business," "Your dollar is 
your best friend." 

I have been trying to find Irish proverbs. 1 have found some 
by a policeman from Dublin in a book called "Twenty Years 
Agrowing." 

And speaking of the effect of folk songs, there is something 
which Professor Donald Davidson, of Vanderbilt University, 
told me. He said that many of the anti-Catholic prejudices 
among the Kentucky hill people came from old Elizabethan 
ballads handed down from the last part of the 16th century. 

You can see the effect of good liturgical music in a parish 
where there is a participation of the people in the singing. 

That is a good way to convey the liturgical spirit. After all, 
it is through military music that the military spirit is conveyed 
to the people. Good Gregorian chant, participated in by the 
people, will increase the spirit of prayer and wonder, the true 
liturgical spirit. 

Victor Smith was saying that in making the crib sets, with 
their figures of the Nativity scene, you couldn't help but come 
to a deepened respect for the religious spirit represented by the 
scenes. 

That comes from work which has a significance. The trouble 
today is that recreation tends to take people away from Chris- 
tian thoughts. Hence you hear people listening to crooners and 
such like. 

But the people crave music, Peter. 

But it must be worthwhile, lake the music of the monks at 
Solesmes. You can trace this work back to Dom Abbe Gue- 
ranger, who sponsored the revival of this work among the 
Benedictines and through them around the world. 

Somewhere I read, Peter, that much of the religious spirit of 
the Middle Ages came from the common practice of learning 
the psalms by heart. Then when the people were working the 
phrases constantly made them try to create a synthesis between 
the matter they were working with and the spiritual signifi- 
cance of their work. 

That is how they related all things to God. There is an in- 

199 



teresting thing that happened in Guatemala. When the Span- 
iards were there, they frightened away the Indians because 
they used to take them and make beasts of burden of them. 
When the Jesuits tried to Christianize them, they fled. The 
Jesuits began to sing their hymns and the natives were at- 
tracted, and when they saw they weren't harmed they co- 
operated. That was how some of the Jesuit Reductions began. 

(These Reductions were farming communes started in va- 
rious South American countries. They were self-sufficient agri- 
cultural communities.) 

Couldn't school teachers do much to bring a return to the 
crafts by introducing them in the schools, Peter? Weaving has 
been encouraged in some parts of Canada in the schools. 

Yes, it would be a good thing. The trouble is that the coun- 
try schools imitate the city schools and so fail to prepare the 
children for a constructive life on the farm. I think that the 
Ladies of the Grail, with their summer school near Chicago, are 
on the right track. The folk schools will help people to get a 
vision of a good rural economy. Professor Davidson was telling 
me that the Catholic Worker should start schools of this type. 
I think it would be good. Then people wouldn't be looking for 
entertainers to entertain them, but would find their own enter- 
tainment in creating beautiful things, and incidentally things 
they could find a market for. 

IV. On Peasant Farming Methods 

Will you tell us something about the farming methods in 
your home in France, Peter? That was folk farming, the real 
peasant kind, and should be enlightening to those who wish to 
know more about folk cultures and cultivation. 

There were about 3,500 sheep in our village and a thousand of 
these belonged to the people of the village. The others be- 
longed to others from some distance away who brought them 
to our sheep herders to care for at certain times of the year. 

Did the sheep graze on the communal lands? 

Yes, in the daytime. Of course, sometimes when fields were 
lying fallow they would graze on private lands. 

Why do you say daytime? 

The sheep were brought into the private lands at night by the 
sheep herders for purpose of manuring. 

How was this arranged? 

It depended upon the number of fields a farmer had. The 
sheep were brought into the fields of the particular farmer 
whose night it was to have the sheep. The farmer's family pre- 
200 



pared the meals for the sheep herders for that day. At 2 o'clock 
in the morning the sheep herders would move the sheep from 
field to field, and in this way twice as much land was manured. 
The sheep were as close packed as possible. All the families 
had their sheep in this communal grazing. Our family had 
eight sheep. 

You had other fertilizing methods, didn't you? 

Yes, we used the fertilizer of oxen and cows, but we weren't 
perhaps as scientific about using it as we should have been. 

You used no commercial fertilizer? 

No; we never even had heard of it. 

In that book by Lord Howard you gave me, entitled "An 
Agricultural Testament, " the author makes an awful strong 
case against the use of commercial fertilizer. He says that it 
ruins the fungi and humus on the topsail and so makes for a 
weakened soil. Such a soil makes the plants weak and easily 
hurt by the bugs and insects. 

Yes, I know. At home we used to have big burrowing rats 
in the fields — taupes, we called them. They helped to work 
the soil. The commercial fertilizer would certainly have killed 
them. 

Perhaps they were like our gophers. But, anyway, Peter, if 
what Lord Howard says is true, and he gives a whole lifetime 
of study to back his ideas, then our methods of farming have 
been nothing short of criminal. 

Yes, our farmers too often aren't farmers at all. They are 
land miners. They just take stuff out of the soil and don't re- 
place it right. 

The miner just takes things out of the earth and never re- 
turns anything. Look how different a psychology that creates 
from that of the farmer who tries to preserve the fertility of 
the land for coming generations. It's really soil robbing, and 
practices of this kind don't make for good character. If we had 
folk schools, these ideas could be brought out. You can see the 
amount of miseducation that has gotten around. 

The other night I gave a talk on Catholic books, and the con- 
nection between reading poor books and soil conservation 
struck me vividly. The trees are torn down to make the cheap 
books. The land becomes eroded because the trees aren't re- 
placed. The patriot would be then the person who read only 
the fewer good books, not the person who reads the trash. 

We begin to see all the connections when we think in this 
organic way. A good farmer plants trees along the edges of his 
fields. That keeps the wind from eroding the soil. 

Yes, and it also lessens the impact of the rain, which is apt 

201 



to wash out plants and make the good topsail run off, especially 
on hills. When I think how banks lend money on mortgages 
to farmers who only "-mine" their land, I wonder how stupid 
they are. The land may look the same, but the loss is in the 
soil. I don't think that many mortgages demand that the land 
be returned in the same good condition it was received. 

Speaking about mortgages, my father had to borrow money 
from time to time. But he borrowed it on his honor as a 
farmer, and a good farmer. There was no mortgage. When the 
man who loaned the money wanted it back, my father paid it if 
he had it, or if he didn't he tried to find another person to lend 
him the money until he could pay it. He would then repay the 
first lender. It was all done on honor; no mortgages. 

Getting back to the sheep, Peter. How often were these 
sheared? 

Once a year — in June. 

Did you do your own carding and spinning? 

We did formerly, but got away from it. 

How about chickens? Did you have to buy grain? 

No, because we processed our own grain. We grew it, our- 
selves. The chickens ate the gleanings, and there was a lot of 
undigested grain from the animals around, too. The wheat 
straw was mixed with the silage, and there was ofen some 
grain on it. The chickens scratched for the undigested grain. 
The chickens got the leftovers from the meals, too. We had no 
ice, and food wasn't kept from one meal to another. 

Did you make your own bread in the villages? 

Yes, the bread was made in the village oven, which was an 
outdoor oven. It had a covering in front to protect the bakers 
from the rain. The people from the village used to gather 
around the oven when baking was going on. It was a great 
place for round-table discussions. 

The meat you ate, then, would be mostly chicken and mutton 
and lamb? 

No, we sold our chickens and sheep, and ate pork and sau- 
sages and the different pork meats. 

How about replanting of trees? When you cut trees for fire- 
wood, did you have a system of replacing them by replanting? 

Our trees weren't so many, and so we only cut the branches. 
This was in three-year periods. We tried to pick trees whose 
leaves the sheep would eat. 



202 



PETER MAURIN ON THE AIR 

He Answers Questions on a Radio Program 
[From the November, 1937, issue of the CATHOLIC WORKER.] 

Q: What would you suggest as the first step toward the solu- 
tion of economic ills? 

A: Feed the hungry for Christ's sake, clothe the naked for 
Christ's sake, shelter the homeless for Christ's sake, instruct 
the ignorant for Christ's sake, as the first Christians used to 
do, which made the pagans say about the Christians: "See how 
they love one another." 

Q: Your first step then would be to spiritualize service to 
others by expressing the spiritual in the material. How would 
you do this? 

A: My idea is to have people who choose to be voluntary poor 
live under the same roof and sit at the same table with the in- 
voluntary poor, setting an example in spiritualization of hu- 
man relations, thus influencing others to follow this standard. 

Q: How can we carry this influence into our everyday work 
life? 

A: By having the voluntary poor and their associates remind 
the owners of capital of the responsibilities of ownership and 
teach the wage workers that labor is a gift, not a commodity 
to be sold for "what the traffic can bear." 

OWNERSHIP 

Q: What do you mean by the responsibility of ownership? 

A: Ownership does not exist to acquire more wealth, since 
all wealth belongs to God and therefore must be used for the 
service of God's children. The owner is God's trustee. God 
wants us to be our brother's keeper; what the rich do for the 
poor for Christ's sake is what they carry with them when 
they die, for Jean Jacques Rousseau says that when a man 
dies, he carries in his clutched hands only that which he has 
given away during his lifetime. 

Q: To what extent does this apply to industrial owners? 

A: Industrial owners must use the profits of industry as Leon 
Harmel, an industrial owner, was using them, looking after the 
needy of his community and acting as an aristocrat rather than 
a plutocrat towards his workers, having a sense of "noblesse 
oblige. " 

LABOR 

Q: What are the working man's responsibilities toward the 
common good? 

203 



A: He must see to it that the things he makes are fit to use 
rather than to sell. He must take pride in work well done, and 
think less about fighting the boss, and jhe must realize that 
labor is related to thought and thought 'is a spiritual faculty, 
not a commodity. 

Q: What would be the ultimate outcome of the realization 
on the part of the worker and the industrial owner of their 
responsibilities? 

A: Through awareness of the employer's responsibility as 
well as the worker's, we will bring about a functional society 
based on Christian charity which will replace our acquisitive 
society. Capital as well as labor must aim to create a new 
society within the shell of the old, with the philosophy of the 
new, which is not a new philosophy but a very old one, so 
old that it looks like new. 

Q: Will you tell us what you mean by a functional society? 

A: A functional society is a society in which each member 
strives to foster the common good, a society of go-givers 
instead of go-getters, a society of idealists instead of mate- 
rialists. 

FUNCTIONAL SOCIETY 

Q: Could you suggest some practical way of developing this 
functional society? 

A: The practical ways of getting it are left to the initiative 
of individuals who have learned what to do with liberty, and 
who keep always in mind the importance of pure means; means 
that harmonize with the ultimate aims to be pursued. 

Q: Where will we find the guiding principles of social recon- 
struction which will bring about this order based on justice 
and love? 

A: We will find them in the social teachings of the Catholic 
Church through the centuries. In recent years these teachings 
have been reiterated in the encyclicals, especially in those of 
Pius XI and Leo XIII, and in the writings of churchmen, soci- 
ologists and economists such as Cardinal Manning, Bishop 
Von Ketteler, Prof. Toniolo and the Marquis de La Tour du Pin. 

THE MEANS 

Q: Your ideas for the common good have struck a responsive 
chord in my mind, and this leads me to believe that many of 
our listeners are wondering, at this point, how they could help 
to bring about this social order. 

A: First, by the daily practice of the Works of Mercy at a 
personal sacrifice. Second, by round-table discussion and study 

204 



groups, to clarify thought; to learn to teach and to carry into 
action. Third, the working man should belong to working- 
men's associations, the employer should belong to employers' 
associations, and through joint collective action these associa- 
tions are morally obligated to foster collective bargaining. 

Fourth, the Catholic working man and the Catholic employer 
should impregnate the working men's associations and the em- 
ployers' associations with Christian principles. 

Fifth, foster farming communes for the employment of the 
unemployed. 

And finally, each individual should assume the responsibility 
of understanding and participating in this program wherever 
and however he finds the opportunity. Just one word of 
warning: this participation should always be that of a thinking, 
reasoning person. 

PRACTICAL CHRISTIANITY 

Q: Some people say that Christianity has failed in allowing 
our present conditions to exist. What do you think about this? 

A: "The Christian ideal has not failed," said Chesterton, "it 
has been found difficult and left untried." It has not been tried 
because people thought that it was not practical and men have 
tried everything except Christianity. Everything that men have 
tried has failed, and to fail in everything that man tries is not 
considered practical by the so-called practical people. So, the 
so-called practical people will begin to be practical when they 
start to practice the Christianity they profess to believe in. 




205 



Reference List of Omitted Paragraphs 

In order to avoid unnecessary repetition certain paragraphs 
have been omitted from some of the essays. Such omissions are 
indicated in the text by a number and four asterisks (**!** }. The 
following list shows where the omitted paragraphs may be found 
elsewhere in the book. 

For Reference No. Paragraph Under Heading Is on Page 

1 HOUSES OF HOSPITALITY 8 

2 SELF-ORGANIZATION .1. 6 

3 I WAS TOLD 39 

LOOKING FOR LIGHT 39 

SHOUTING WITH ROTARIANS 39 

THINGS HAVE CHANGED 40 

4 RECONSTRUCTION 43 

5 HENRY ADAMS 180 

6 BETTER AND BETTER OFF 26 

CAPITAL AND LABOR 27 

SELLING THEIR LABOR 28 

SELF-ORGANIZATION 6 

7 ON BEING CRAZY 45 

8 CATHOLIC SOCIAL RESEARCH 42 

9 HOUSES OF HOSPITALITY 8 

10 FARMING COMMUNES 52 

11 CAPITAL AND LABOR 27 

SELLING THEIR LABOR 28 

WHAT MAKES MAN HUMAN 49 

CHRISTIANITY, CAPITALISM, 

COMMUNISM 26 

WHAT ST. FRANCIS DESIRED 26 

12 WHAT ST. FRANCIS DESIRED 26 

13 THE FALLACY OF SAVING 14 

WEALTH-PRODUCING MANIACS 13 

BEGINNING WITH "BECAUSE THE 

STATE," TO BOTTOM OF COLUMN.. 17 

14 I AGREE 152 

15 ETHICS AND ECONOMICS 4 

15A THINGS HAVE CHANGED (First 16 Lilies) 40 

MAKER OF DEALS 67 

16 FARMING COMMUNES 52 

PROFESSORS OF A FARMING COMMUNE 52 

LABORERS OF A FARMING COMMUNE.. 53 

17 CHRIST'S MESSAGE 26 

WHAT ST. FRANCIS DESIRED 26 

18 FIVE DEFINITIONS 81 

THEY AND WE 82 

19 HENRY ADAMS , 180 

20 THEY AND WE 82 

21 THE WISDOM OF GIVING 63 

22 LET'S BE LIBERATORS 126 

THE AGE OF TREASON 184 

23 SCHOLARS AND BOURGEOIS 18 

24 FARMING COMMUNES 52 

PROFESSORS OF A FARMING COMMUNE 52 

LABORERS OF A FARMING COMMUNE . 53 

25 FIVE DEFINITIONS 81 

THEY AND WE 82 

26 WHAT MAKES MAN HUMAN 49 

27 LET'S BE LIBERATORS 126 

THE AGE OF TREASON 184 

206 



28 NO RECOURSE 67 

BUSINESS IS SELFISHNESS 67 

29 RIGHT OR WRONG 86 

30 NO RECOURSE 67 

BUSINESS IS SELFISHNESS 67 

31 RIGHT OR WRONG 86 

BARBARIANS AND CIVILIZED 119 

32 BECAUSE THE STATE 14 

BOOKS TO READ 

The following books were recommended repeatedly by Peter 
Maurin In reading lists appended to his essays: 
Art in a Changing Civilization, Eric Gill 
Bourgeois Mind, The, Nicholas Berdyaev 
Brotherhood Economics, Toyohiko Kagawa 
Charles V, Wyndham Lewis 

Catholicism, Protestantism and Capitalism, Amintorc Fanfani 
Christianity and Class War, Nicholas Berdyaev 
Church and the Land, The, Father Vincent IWcNabb, O.P. 
Discourse on Usury, Thomas Wilson 
Emancipation of a Free Thinker, The, Herbert E. Cory 
Enquiries Into Religion and Culture, Christopher Dawson 
Fields, Factories and Workshops, Peter Kropotkin 
Fire on the Earth, Paul Hanly Furfey 
Flight From the City, The, Ralph Borsodi 

Franciscan Message to the World, The, Father Agostino Gemelli, F.M. 
Freedom in the Modern World, Jacques Maritain 
Future of Bolshevism, The, Waldemar Gurian 
Gnildsman's Interpretation of History, A, Arthur Penty 
Great Commandment of the Gospel, The, His Excellency A. G. Cicognani, 

Apostolic Delegate to the U. S. 
Ireland and the Foundation of Europe, Benedict Fitzpa trick 
I Take My Stand, by Twelve Southern Agrarians 
Land of the Free, The, Herbert Agar 
Lord of the World, Robert Hugh Benson 
Making of Europe, The, Christopher Dawson 
Man the Unknown, Dr. Alexis Carrel 
Nations Can Stay at Home, B. O. Wilcox 
Nazareth or Social Chaos, Father Vincent McNabb, O.P. 
Our Enemy the State, Albert Jay Nock 
Outline of Sanity, G. K. Chesterton 
Personalist Manifesto, Emmanuel Mounter 
Philosophy of Work, A, Etienne Borne 
Post-Industrialism Arthur Penty 
Progress and Religion, Christopher Dawson 
Religion and the Modern State, Christopher Dawson 
Religion and the Rise of Capitalism, R. H. Tawney 
Revolution Personnaliste et Communautaire (La), Emmanuel Mounier 
Saint Francis of Assist, G. K. Chesterton 
Social Principles of the Gospel, Alphonse Lugan 
Soviet Man Now, Helen Iswolsky 
Temporal Regime and Liberty, Jacques Maritain 
Theory of the Leisure Class, The, Thorstein Veblen 
Thomistic Doctrine of the Common Good, The, Seraphine Michel 
Things That Are Not Caesar's, Jacques Maritain 
Toward a Christian Sociology, Arthur Penty 
True Humanism, Jacques Maritain 
Two Nations, The, Christopher Hollis 
Unfinished Universe, The, T. S. Gregory 
Valerian Persecution, The, Father Patrick Healy 
What Man Has Made of Man, Mortimer Adier 
Work and Leisure, Eric Gill 207 



INDEX 



AAA, 52 

Adams, Henry, 19, 180 Adams, 
James Truslow, 6 Adler, 
Mortimer, 91, 116, 126 Age of 
Reason, The, 184 Agrarianism, 
155 Agrarian Movement, 101 
.Agricultural Testament, An, 201 
Agronomic Universities, 13, 22 
Agronomist, The, 22 Aherne, 
Dick, 195 Alpines, 175 
Ambassadors of God, 7, 63, 97 A. F. 
of L., 1 10, 135, 136 American Society 
of Architects, 180 Amiel, Frederic, 
105 Anti-Semitism, 148 Apostolic 
Delegate (Amleto Giovanni 
Cicognani), 43, 48 Aristotle, 85, 91, 
116. 184 



Barres, Maurice, 19 Bauer, Dr., 134 
Becker, Raymond de, 82, 89 
Bellingham, Wash., 20, 23 Belloc, 
Hilaire, 115, 187 Benda, Julien, 126, 
184 Benedict XV, 27, 123, 142, 144 
Benedictines, 20, 178, 199 Beranger, 
Jtiles, 165 Berdyaev, Nicholas, "* 
Better and Better Off, 26 Bible, 112, 
160 Bill of Rights, 159 Birth control, 
149,151-2 Bishops' Message, 29 
Bishops' Program of Social Recon- 
struction, 12 Bismarck, 122, 146, 156 
Blessed Mother, 148 Bolshevist 
Socialism, 95 Bonaparte, Napoleon, 
158, 160 Boniface VIII, 159 Bossuet, 
9 

Bourgeois Mind, The, 114 Bourne, 
Cardinal, 42 Brain Trust, 16 
Branham, Grace, 113 Briand, 
Aristide, 88, 123 Briffault, Robert, 61 
Brooklyn, 23 Brooks, Van Wyck, 68 
Brothers of St. John Baptist, 114 
Broun, Heywood, 151 Bruce 
(publisher), 181 Bruehl, fRev.) 
Charles P., 113 Burns, Robert, 96, 
100 Busch, Bishop, 85 

208 



Butte, 133 

Byzantine Empire, 143 

Caesar, 106 

Cain, 157 

Calais, France, 111, 116 

California, 135-6 

Calvary, 32, 149 

Calvin, John 13, 14,65, 112, 176 

Campion Propaganda Committees, 80 

Canon Law, 4, 41, 50, 159, 171 

Cardozo, Judge, 171 

Carlyle, 77 

Carrel, Dr. Alexis. 114, 127 

Cathedral of Chartres, 19, 180 

Catholic 

Action, 4, 8, 9, 10, 12, 15, 24-5, 3G, 
38,42,44,45, 188-9 

Charities, National Conference of, 7 

Church, 3, 32, 47, 54, 70, 86, 94, 100. 
126, 129, 140, 147, 149, 151, 160, 
175-6,181,204 

Communes, 50 

Communionism, 169 

Communism, SO, 70 

Encyclopedia, 8 

Labor College. 42 

Labor Guilds, 20,23-4 

political party, 38 

University, 48, 102 

Worker, 7, 9, 10, 16, 17, 38, 40, 49, 
50, 59, 61, 64, 66, 69, 70, 80, 81-2, 
94, 102, 104-5, 126, 133-4, 147, 155, 
193,200,203 

Worker Movement, 38 

Workers' School, 25, 38 
CCC, 52 

Chambers of Commerce, 162, 185 
Chanson, Paul, 110, 111, 116 
Chardonnel, Abbe, 10 Chartres, 
Cathedral of, 19, 180 Chesterton, 
68, 95-6, 187, 205 Chicago, 200 
Chicago, University of, 101, 148 
Christ, 4, 32,47, 71, 100, 106, 111, 140, 

149,155,160,166,175,187-8 
Christian 

Capitalism, 26 

Communism, 26, 50, 127, 154 

Doctrine, 188-9 

Front, 83,113 

Mobilizers, 162 
Church 

and the Catholic, The, 194 

and the Land, The, 103 

Fathers of, 5, 13, 17, 56, 65, 176 
CIO, 110, 136 Cite Chretienne, La, 164 
City of God, 92 



Civil War, American, 183 
Cletnenceau, 123, 146 
Cobbett, William, 187 
Colum, Padraic, 144 
Columbia, 69 Common 
Good 

Doctrine, 12,25,40,41,50,64, 108, 
116,150 

Movement, 41 Common Law, 
171 Communes, Catholic, 50, 70 
Communism, Christian, 26, 127 
Communist 

Manifesto, 11,60,64, 103 

Movement, 1 1 

Party, 43, 58, 61, 64, 69, 70, 89, 90, 
95,107,114,126,135,152 
Communitarian, 81-2,98, 116, 194, 

Movement, 89, 90, 96, 101 

Personalism, 95-6 

Revolution, 61, 82 

Tradition, French, 62; German, 62; 
Russian, 61 
Communitarianism, 61, 82, 89, 94 
Communities, Christian, 62 
Condition of Labor, The (Encyc), 

51 
Congress, American, 80 
Considerant, Victor, 12, 64 
Constantine, 8 

Constantinople, 43, 114, 156, 163 
Constitution, American, 80, 81, 122, 

159 
Coolidge, 12, 51 Co-operative 
Movement, 101 Co-operativism, 155 
Co-operators, 98 Corbett, Father, 9 
Corporatism, Fascist, 95 Cory. Dr. 
Herbert E, 180-81 Coughlin, Father, 
83-84, 134 Council of Carthage, 8 
Counsels of the Gospel, 94 Covington, 
Ky., 177 Cram, Ralph Adams, 79 
Crimean War, 156 Cross, 32, 140 
Crowd, The, 95 Cult, Culture, 
Cultivation, 114, 124. 

163, 194 
Cummings, John J., 38 
CWA, 52 



Daily Worker, The, 40 Davidson, 
Prof. Donald, 199, 200 Dawson, 
Christopher, 25, 115, 120 Day, 
Dorothy, 113 De Bethune, Ade, 197 
Decentralism, 155 Declaration of 
Independence, 159 Denifle, Father, 
177 



Dennis, Lawrence, 58 Denver, 
133 Deodad, 163 Descartes, 184 
De Valera, 143 Devas, Charles, 78 
Dewey, Prof. John, 85 
Distributists, 98 Diutitrnum 711ud 
(Encyc), 164 Domin-'can, 127, 
139, 152, 177 Dualist Humanists, 
155, 178 Dublin, 199 



Easy Essays, 17,96 

Eau Claire, 134 

Economic Consequences of the Peace, 

The, 111 
Economic Determinism, 103 Eliot, T. 
S., 176 Emancipation of a 
Freethinker, The, 

181 
Emerson, 80, 93. 102 Empire State 
Building, 97 Employers' associations, 
111, 116, 205 Engels, Friedrich, 64 
Enquiries Into Religion and Culture. 

115 
Esprit, 61-2, 82, 89 Eve of the 
Reformation, The, 178 



Fallacy of Saving, The, 51 Farming 
Communes, 24-5, 43, 50, 52, 53, 59, 
62, 64, 73-4. 80, 193, 195, 200,205 
Fascist Corporatism, 95 Federal 
Government, 6, 14, 44 Fire 'on 
the Earth, 96 Fisher. Louis, 185 
folk 

cultures, 198,200 

dances, 198 

schools, 198,200,201 

songs, 198 

proverbs, 199 
Ford, 109 

Forgotten Man, 37, 96 
Franciscans, 85, 94, 135-6 
Franco, 134 

Frank, Glenn, 36, 39, 99. 121 Frank. 
Waldo, 48, 92, 134 Freedom in the 
Modern World, 95 

103,108,115 
French and Indian War. 130 
Frey (John Philip), 135 
Fundamentalists, 155 
Fundamentalist Protestants, 178 
Furfey, Rev. Paul Hanly, 96 
Futilitarian 

Economists, 99, 100, 112 

State, 99, 100 



209 



Gage, Marguerite, 113 
Gandhi, 77, 108, 143 
Gasquet, Cardinal, 178 
Gaul, 119 

German Catholic Party, 38 
Germantown, 1 1 1 ., 22 
Gibraltar, 129, 156 Giesen, 
Dr. John, 134 Gill, Eric, 78, 
92, 150, 187 Gillis, Father, 
10 Gitlow, Benjamin, 153 
Gonzaga College, 133 Gorki, 
Maxim, 92 Grail, Ladies of 
the, 200 Graz, 177 
Great Commandment, The, 48 
Great War, 130 Greenwich 
Village, 145 Gregorian Chant, 
199 Grey Eminence, 179 
Guardini, 194 

Gueranger, Dom Abbe, 199 Guild 
System, 64 GuUdists, 98, 116 Guildist 
Movement, 101 Guildsman, The, 22 
Guildsman's Interpretation "of His- 
tory, A, 114, 154, 172 Gunn, Michael, 
23 

Hall, Bolton, 84-5 

Hanna, Mark, 105 

Harding (Warren G.)f 12 

Harlem, 40, 54 

Harmel, Leon, 109, 203 

Hayes, Father Cornelius, 9 

Hayes, Prot Carlton, 98 

Healy, Father Patrick, 48 

Henry VIII, 171 

Henry, Patrick, 95, 107, 127, 145 

Hergenhan, H, 40, 41 

High, Stanley, 58 

Kinsley, Cardinal, 126 

Hitler, 91, 95, 123-4, 146-7, 158, 161, 

171-2 
Hobbes, 99, 112 Hohenzollerns, 179 
Holmes, John. Haynes, 154 Holy 
Father, 12,23,29,38,42-3,47, 
94, 111, 125-6, 144, 175, 188 Holy 
Roman Empire, 143 Hook, Sidney, 
153 Hoover (Herbert), 68 Houses of 
Hospitality, 8, 9, 13, 20, 25, 43, 50, 
58-9, 62, 73, 74, 80, 98, 114 Howard, 
Lord, 201 Humanism 

Integral, 92 

Socialist, 92 
Humanisme Integral (I/), 92 
Humanists, 62, 100, 116 
Hume, 99, 112 

210 



Hutchins, President, 101 
Huxley, Aldous, 179 

I Confess, 153 

Ibsen, Henrik, 102 

Irish Communism, 62 

Irish Scholars, 43, 49, 50, 62, 1 14, 124, 

144, 163 
Is Modern Culture Doomed? 194 
Israel, Prophets of, 5, 13, 17, 56, 65, 

176 

Jarrett, Father Bede, 102 
Jefferson, Thomas, 6,107, 122 
Jesuit 

House of Studies, 133 

Order, 98 

Reductions, 200 Jesuits, 94, 
180, 189,200 Jesus, 32, 100, 
142 Jewish 

Jubilee, 16 

Prophets, 149 

Temple, 139 
Johnson, General, 68-9, 81, 85, 97 
Jorgenson, Johannes, 26 Joseph, 
Father, 179 Journal Intime, 105 
Judaism and Capitalism, 146 Judas, 
32 Jusserand, Jules, 165 

Kagawa, Dr, 89 

Kaiser William, 146 

Kapital, Das, 1 1 

Keating, Archbishop, 42 

Ketteler, Bishop von, 97, 204 

Keynes, John Maynard, 17, 176-7 

King of Peace, 142 

Kenkel (F. P.), 199 

Klyber, Father, Arthur, 148-9 

Kirchwey, Freda, 1 64 

Kiwanis, 89, 94 

Knights of Columbus, 85 

Knox, John, 176 

Koch, Edward, 22 

Kropotkin (Peter), 4, 50 

La Crosse, Wis., 134 

La Tour du Pin, Marquis de, 204 

Labor Day, 52, 66 

Labor Guilds, Catholic, 20, 23-4 

Laboratory for Leadership in Public 

Affairs, 44 Lady Poverty, 97 
Laski, Harold, 108, 112, 126, 132 Le 
Beau, Father, 134 Le Bon, Gustave, 
95 Leadership or Domination, 96 
League of Nations, 87, 130, 141-2-3 
Leclercq, Abbe, 1 64 



Lenin, 11, 31, 37, 64, 77, 103-4, 120, 

158, 187 
Leo XIII, 4, 24, 27, 41, 51, 164, 204 
Liberty League, 95 Lienard, Cardinal, 
125-6 Lille, Bishop of, 125 Liverpool, 
42 

Liverpool, 'Cathedral of, 9 Lloyd, 
George, 123, 146 Locke, 99, 112 
Lombroso, Gina, 151 London School 
of Economics, 112 Loosen, Father, 
134 Lord, Father, S. J., 9, 15, 44, 98 
Long, Huey, 135 Los Angeles, 133, 
148 Louisiana, 134-5 Lugan, 
Alphonse, 25 Luther, 112, 116, 160 
Lyons, Eugene, 120 Lytle, Andrew 
Nelson, 79 

MacDonald, Ramsay, 61 

McCall, H., 44 

McGowan, Father, 85 

McNabb, Father Vincent, O. P., 103, 

127, 152, 194 
McNicholas, Archbishop, 4, 123 
McSorley, Father, 9, 147 Machiavelli, 
159 Machiavellian, 146 
Machiavellism, 154 Magic Mountain, 
The, 189 Mahometans, 7, 143 Man the 
Unknown, 114, 127 Manchester 
School, 99, 100, 134,199 Manhattan 
Lyceum, 7 Mann, Thomas, 189 
Manning, Cardinal, 204 Maritain, 
Jacques, 83,91-2, 95, 103, 

108, 115, 148, 154 Maritain, Mrs., 
148 Marshall, D., 78 Marshall, Vice 
President, 48 Marx, Karl, 11, 12, 21, 
27, 37, 64, 70, 

103-4, 127, 190 
Marxian, 11 
Maryknoll, 147 
Masons, 23 Mass 

Book, 32 

Holy Sacrifice of, 32 

Spirit of the, 32 Maternity Guilds, 
80 Maurin, Peter, 7, 9, 20, 29, 58, 85, 
96 Mediterraneans, 175 Melklejohn, 
Prof., 39 Messiah, 149 Michel, 
Seraphine, 25 Milwaukee, 181 
Minneapolis, 51, 115, 134 Mirabeau, 
27 



Missionaries of the Holy Trinity, 102 

Mohammedanism, 120 

Moley, Prof, 16 

Mont Saint Michel, 180 

Mont Saint Michel and Chartres, 1 80 

More, Thomas (see St. Thomas) 

Morris, William, 187 

Moscow, 19, 37 

Mounier, Emmanuel, 61, 82, 89, 182 

"Muni," 7 

Municipal Lodgings, 7 

Mussolini, 91,95, 120, 123, 126, 142, 

171-2 Mystical Body, 
58, 175 

Nation, The, 164 Negro 
Spirituals, 198 New Deal, 42, 
46, 49, 66 New England, 134 
Newfoundland, 198 Newman, 
Cardinal, 101 New Masses, 73 
New Mexico, 136 New 
Testament, 26, 111, 147 New 
York, 7, 84 New York Times, 
84 New York Tribune, 153 
Nock, Albert, Jay, 70, 95 
Nordics, 147, 161, 175-6 
Normalcy, 12,45 

NRA, 45, 52, 66, 68, 71, 80, 81, 84-5, 
110 



O'Hara, Bishop, 57, 188 

Old Principles and the New Order, 

194 
Old Testament, 147 
Omaha, 133 

Our Enemy the State, 95 
Oxford, 41-2 

Pacelli, Cardinal, 144 Paine, 
Thomas, 116, 184 Papal 
States, 139, 157 Papal 
Supremacy, 155 Paraguay 
Reductions, 189 Paris, 
Archbishop of, 125 Parish 

Houses, 8, 9 

Subsistence Camps, 20, 22 Parsons, 
Father, 91,110 Peguy, Charles, 19, 
49, 182 Penty, Arthur, 103, 114, 154, 
172, 187Personalism, 155 

Communitarian, 95-6 
Personalist, 93, 193-94 

Democracy, 134 

Manifesto, A, 182 

Theists, 178 
Philadelphia, 195 
Philip the Fair, 159 

211 



Philosophy of Poverty, The 190 

Piggors, Paul, 96 

Pittsburgh, University of, 1 80 

Pius X, 27, 164 

Pius XI, 4, 15,27,36,99,204 

Pius XII, 144 

plague, modern, 36 

Pluralist State, 100, 101 

Pope, 50, 51, 139, 141, 144, 154-5, 172, 

178, 179 
Portland, Ore., 133 Positivism, 
184 Port Arthur, 156 Post- 
Industrialism, 102 Poverty of 
Philosophy, The, 190 
Pragmatism, 68, 184 Prayer for 
Peace, 142 Prince, The, 159 
Prince Edward Island, 195 
Progress and Religion, 25 
Prohibition Law, 68 prostitution, 
149, 152Proudhon, 11, 12,64,70, 
190Pustet, 177PWA, 52 

Ratner, Dr. Herbert, 148,151 
Redemptorist, 148 Rediscovery "of 
America, 48 Reductions, Jesuit, 200 
Reformation, 173, 178, 196 Religion 
and the Rise of Capitalism, 

17,41,71 
Renaissance, 109 
Revolution, 

American, 158-59 

English, 158 

French, 158 

Russian, 153, 158 Resolution 
Personnaliste et Com- 

munautaira (La), 82, 89 Ricardo, 
112, 146 Richelieu, Cardinal, 129, 160, 
179 Rivera, Diego, 10 Robertson, 
John M., 51 Robinson, Father, 133 
Roman 

Catholics, 178 

Empire, 13,43, 119, 124, 139, 142-3, 
162-3 

Law, 154, 159, 171-2 Romanism, 47, 
49 Romanticism, 184 Rome, 3, 10, 37, 
70, 125-6, 139, 164 Roosevelt 
(Franklin D.), 12, 16,37, 

48, 135 
Roosevelt, Theodore, 88 
Roper, Dr. C, 44 Rotarians, 
39, 72, 89, 94, 146 Rotary 
Clubs, 51 

Round-Table Discussion, 9, 13, 25, 43, 

49, G2,80 

212 



Rousseau, Jean Jacques, 63, 69, 80, 

128, 203 
Ruskin, John, 187 Ryan, Father 
Arthur, 127, 154 

Sacred Heart, 142 

St. Augustine, 10, 116, 124-5, 176, 178 

St. Benedict, 19 

St. Cloud, Minn., 85 

Saint-Die, 163 

St. Dunstan's College, 195 

St. Francis of Assisi, 26-7, 37, 62, 97, 

178 
St. Francis of Sales, 111 
St. Gertrude, 195 St. 
Joseph's Hospital, 134 St. 
Louis, (Mo.), 147 St. 
Mary's Hospital, 134 St. 
Louis University, 10 St. 
Paul, 29 

St. Paul (Minn.), 115,133-4 St. 
Thomas Aquinas, 12, 25, 31, 37, 50, 

64,116,184 
St. Thomas College, 134 St. Thomas 
More, 64, 171; (Blessed), 

12,37,50; (Chancellor), 176 
St. Vincent Ferrer, 139 Salonika, 
139 Salons de Culture, 163 San 
Francisco, 133 Sanger, Margaret, 
151 Sangnier, Marc, 164 
Savonarola, 159 Schmitt, Carl, 
48-9 School of .Social Studies, 42, 
57 Seaman, Elias, 133 Seattle, 
133 

Secretary of Commerce, 44 
Secularism, 36, 99, 161 Self- 
Employing Centers, 58 Sermon on 
the Mount, 47, 114, 116, 

172, 178 
Seven Years' War, 129-30 
Shakespeare, 101 Sheed and Ward, 
194 Sheely, Father Patrick, S. J., 
42 Sheen, Father Fulton, 38; 
Monsignor, 

85 
Sherman (Gen.), 169 Shuster, 
George N., 50 Siegfried, Andre, 
71 Sillon, 164 Silver Springs, 102 
Sinclair, Upton, 83 Sister Helen 
Angelica, 134 sit-down strike, 
108, 110 Smith. Adam, 65, 112, 
146, 160 Smith, Al, 48, 57 Smith, 
Victor, 199 

Social Justice and Central Blatt, 199 
Social missionaries, 57 social 
workers, 74 



Social Principles of the Gospel, The, 

25 
Socialist 

Labor Party, 70 

Party, 70 Solesmes, 199 Sombart, 
Werner, 146 Sommerville, Henry, 71 
Sorel, Georges, 116 Soul of Woman, 
The, 151 Spanish Succession, War of, 
129 Specialization, 68 speed-up 
system, 109 Spencer, Herbert, 148 
spirituals, Negro, 198 Spokane 
(Wash.), 133, 174 Stalin, 31, 37, 95, 
120, 135, 158, 172 Steffens, Lincoln, 4, 
50 Stevenson, Robert Louis, 26, 111, 
188 Strachey, John, 58, 60, 127, 152 
Study Clubs, 57 Stuff and Push, 145 
Sturzo, Don, 164 Supreme Court, 68, 
80, 81 Swastika, 140 

Tawney, R. H.,.4, 17, 41, 50, 71, 159, 

187 
Technocracy, 45 Temple, 4; 
Jewish, 139 Ten 
Commandments, 116 Texas, 
135-6 Theists, 100, 116 Then 
and Now, 55 Theocentrists, 
179 

Theory of the Leisure Class, The, 41 
They and We, 82 Third Order of St. 
Francis, 27 Thirty Years' War, 129- 
30, 179 Thomas, Norman, 58, 61 
Thomistic Doctrine of the Common 

Good, The, 25 Thousand 
Years Ago, 55 Three Acres 
and Liberty, 84 Tin Pan 
Alley, 198 Tipperary, 127 
Toniolo, Prol., 204 
Totalitarian States, 100,122 
Townsend, Dr., 83 

Treason of the Intellectuals, The, 184 
Treaty of Versailles, 122-3, 141, 146, 

177 
Trotsky, 120 



Tsar, 153 

Twenty Years Agrowing, 



199 



Uncle Sam, 4, 5, 45 Unemployed 
Councils, 90 Union Square, 16, 
18, 40 Unpopular Front, 116, 134 
usury, 13, 17, 187 utilitarian 
philosophy, 99, 112 Utopian, 11, 
37 Utopias, 26, 37 

Valerian Persecution, The, 48 

Van Zeeland, Premier, 82 

Vanderbilt University, 199 

Veblen, Thorstein, 4. 41, 50 

Verdier, Cardinal, 125 

Versailles, 130, 176 

Versailles, Treaty of, 122-3, 141, 146, 

177 
Vilna, 141-2 Vienna, 
Treaty of, 161 Virgin 
Birth, 155 Voltaire, 154 
voluntary poverty, 190 

Wall Street, 54 

Washington (D.C.), 6,44,102,121, 165 

Washington, University of, 180 

Waterloo, 160 

Watt (James), 158 

•wealth-producing maniacs, 13 

Westminster, 126 

Westphalia, Treaty of, 129, 160, 179 

White, Bishop, 133 

Wilson, President, 65, 122-3, 141-2 

Wilson, Thomas, 176 

Wisconsin, University, 36, 39 

Workers' Party, 70 

Workers' Rights and the Guildist 

Order, 111 
Workmen's Associations, 24 working- 
men's associations, 205 Works of 
Mercy, 43,47,49.57, 59, 64, 

114, 125, 188-9, 204 World 
War, 23, 44, 65, 173, 183 WPA, 
121 



Yale Review, 183 
YMCA, 134 Young, 
Owen, 77 

Zionists, 139 



213